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The role of demographic factors in determining the political attitude of Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu university towards the Syrian event

Original language: turkish. English abstract: The Syrian event formed a social laboratory that can test various theories of social sciences. Given the intensity of the conflict and the depth of the fluctuations and changes created, there are clear horizontal and vertical divisions and overlapping of the Syrian society's political attitudes towards what is happening. The importance of demographic factors in this regard was remarkable, which is an opportunity to study the factors that determine the political attitude and highlight the demographic factors. Due to the special circumstances of Syria and the difficulty of reaching all segments of society, we chose to study the political attitude of the Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu University. We distributed a questionnaire on a random sample and 212 could be accepted. After carrying out the statistical analysis of the data it was found that the most important demographic factors contributing to determining the age of political attitude, Where the older segments of the youth tended to opposition mood, and the ethnic factor, where it was found that Arabs have an attitude closer to the opposition mood compared to Kurds. While there was no significant effect on the factors such as religion, financial situation and gender

The role of demographic factors in determining the political attitude of Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu university towards the Syrian event

Original language: turkish. English abstract: The Syrian event formed a social laboratory that can test various theories of social sciences. Given the intensity of the conflict and the depth of the fluctuations and changes created, there are clear horizontal and vertical divisions and overlapping of the Syrian society's political attitudes towards what is happening. The importance of demographic factors in this regard was remarkable, which is an opportunity to study the factors that determine the political attitude and highlight the demographic factors. Due to the special circumstances of Syria and the difficulty of reaching all segments of society, we chose to study the political attitude of the Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu University. We distributed a questionnaire on a random sample and 212 could be accepted. After carrying out the statistical analysis of the data it was found that the most important demographic factors contributing to determining the age of political attitude, Where the older segments of the youth tended to opposition mood, and the ethnic factor, where it was found that Arabs have an attitude closer to the opposition mood compared to Kurds. While there was no significant effect on the factors such as religion, financial situation and gender

The role of demographic factors in determining the political attitude of Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu university towards the Syrian event

Original language: turkish. English abstract: The Syrian event formed a social laboratory that can test various theories of social sciences. Given the intensity of the conflict and the depth of the fluctuations and changes created, there are clear horizontal and vertical divisions and overlapping of the Syrian society's political attitudes towards what is happening. The importance of demographic factors in this regard was remarkable, which is an opportunity to study the factors that determine the political attitude and highlight the demographic factors. Due to the special circumstances of Syria and the difficulty of reaching all segments of society, we chose to study the political attitude of the Syrian students at Mardin Artuklu University. We distributed a questionnaire on a random sample and 212 could be accepted. After carrying out the statistical analysis of the data it was found that the most important demographic factors contributing to determining the age of political attitude, Where the older segments of the youth tended to opposition mood, and the ethnic factor, where it was found that Arabs have an attitude closer to the opposition mood compared to Kurds. While there was no significant effect on the factors such as religion, financial situation and gender

How can the G20 support innovative: mechanisms to mobilise financial resources for LDCs in a post-pandemic world?

Innovative financing for development can contribute to closing the financial gap by mobilising new funds for sustainable development and leveraging existing scarce public concessional resources (ODA). In addition to domestic resources and traditional external financial resources, innovative financing mechanisms can mobilise further financial resources for LDCs. In view of the LDCs’ enormous sustainable investment needs, mobilising private financial resources is both crucial and inescapable. Blended finance represents an important instrument to combine ODA with private finance, thereby leveraging scarce concessional public financial resources. The G20 should consider promoting the adoption and implementation of the OECD Blended Finance Principles in LICs to enhance blended finance in these countries. As many LDCs do not have sufficient institutional capacity. To adopt blended finance instruments the G20 should support LDC in developing institutional capacity to effectively implement blended finance tools and to lower risks associated with blended finance. An additional instrument to enhance external financial resources to LDCs is to allocate the recently approved new SDR allocation to LDCs exceeding LDCs quota. The G20 should take on a leading by example/frontrunner role and donate as well as lend a percentage of their allocations, discuss establishing a special purpose fund (i.e. a green or health fund), support allocating a large amount of SDRs to LDCs exceeding their quota and discuss proposals how to allocate them among LICs and discuss how these financial instruments can be used to ensure a sustainable and inclusive recovery from the covid-19 crisis. As the fragmented architecture of sustainable bond standards represent one main challenge in mobilising financial resources for attaining the SDGs by issuing sustainable bonds the G20 should discuss and promote harmonisation of sustainable bond standards. Moreover, the G20 countries should provide capacity building for LDCs for developing the sustainable bond market in these countries.

How can the G20 support innovative: mechanisms to mobilise financial resources for LDCs in a post-pandemic world?

Innovative financing for development can contribute to closing the financial gap by mobilising new funds for sustainable development and leveraging existing scarce public concessional resources (ODA). In addition to domestic resources and traditional external financial resources, innovative financing mechanisms can mobilise further financial resources for LDCs. In view of the LDCs’ enormous sustainable investment needs, mobilising private financial resources is both crucial and inescapable. Blended finance represents an important instrument to combine ODA with private finance, thereby leveraging scarce concessional public financial resources. The G20 should consider promoting the adoption and implementation of the OECD Blended Finance Principles in LICs to enhance blended finance in these countries. As many LDCs do not have sufficient institutional capacity. To adopt blended finance instruments the G20 should support LDC in developing institutional capacity to effectively implement blended finance tools and to lower risks associated with blended finance. An additional instrument to enhance external financial resources to LDCs is to allocate the recently approved new SDR allocation to LDCs exceeding LDCs quota. The G20 should take on a leading by example/frontrunner role and donate as well as lend a percentage of their allocations, discuss establishing a special purpose fund (i.e. a green or health fund), support allocating a large amount of SDRs to LDCs exceeding their quota and discuss proposals how to allocate them among LICs and discuss how these financial instruments can be used to ensure a sustainable and inclusive recovery from the covid-19 crisis. As the fragmented architecture of sustainable bond standards represent one main challenge in mobilising financial resources for attaining the SDGs by issuing sustainable bonds the G20 should discuss and promote harmonisation of sustainable bond standards. Moreover, the G20 countries should provide capacity building for LDCs for developing the sustainable bond market in these countries.

How can the G20 support innovative: mechanisms to mobilise financial resources for LDCs in a post-pandemic world?

Innovative financing for development can contribute to closing the financial gap by mobilising new funds for sustainable development and leveraging existing scarce public concessional resources (ODA). In addition to domestic resources and traditional external financial resources, innovative financing mechanisms can mobilise further financial resources for LDCs. In view of the LDCs’ enormous sustainable investment needs, mobilising private financial resources is both crucial and inescapable. Blended finance represents an important instrument to combine ODA with private finance, thereby leveraging scarce concessional public financial resources. The G20 should consider promoting the adoption and implementation of the OECD Blended Finance Principles in LICs to enhance blended finance in these countries. As many LDCs do not have sufficient institutional capacity. To adopt blended finance instruments the G20 should support LDC in developing institutional capacity to effectively implement blended finance tools and to lower risks associated with blended finance. An additional instrument to enhance external financial resources to LDCs is to allocate the recently approved new SDR allocation to LDCs exceeding LDCs quota. The G20 should take on a leading by example/frontrunner role and donate as well as lend a percentage of their allocations, discuss establishing a special purpose fund (i.e. a green or health fund), support allocating a large amount of SDRs to LDCs exceeding their quota and discuss proposals how to allocate them among LICs and discuss how these financial instruments can be used to ensure a sustainable and inclusive recovery from the covid-19 crisis. As the fragmented architecture of sustainable bond standards represent one main challenge in mobilising financial resources for attaining the SDGs by issuing sustainable bonds the G20 should discuss and promote harmonisation of sustainable bond standards. Moreover, the G20 countries should provide capacity building for LDCs for developing the sustainable bond market in these countries.

Postdoc (w/m/div) in der Abteilung Klimapolitik

Die Abteilung Klimapolitik untersucht mit empirischen und theoretischen Ansätzen bisherige Wirkungen und zukünftige Gestaltungsoptionen von Politikinstrumenten und regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen für die Transformation zur Klimaneutralität. Schwerpunkte bilden Arbeiten zum Strom- und Gebäudesektor, der Industrie, sowie zu Sustainable Finance und internationaler Kooperationen im Klimaschutzbereich.

Dafür sucht die Abteilung zum nächstmöglichen Zeitpunkt eine*n Postdoc (w/m/div) (Vollzeit, Teilzeit geeignet) im Rahmen unserer Forschungsaktivitäten im Bereich Sustainable Finance.

Wir beschäftigen uns mit vielfältigen Fragestellungen rund um das Thema Sustainable Finance und Klimapolitik. Ein Fokus liegt dabei auf der Rolle der Kapitalmärkte für die Finanzierung einer klimaneutralen Wirtschaft.


Impacts and synergies of weather index insurance and microcredit in rural areas: a systematic review

Weather constitutes a major source of risks facing households in rural areas, which are being amplified under climate change. In this context, two main rural financial services, weather index insurance and microcredit, have been increasingly adopted by farmers worldwide. However, the understanding of the socioeconomic and ecological impacts of these rural finance schemes, including potential maladaptive outcomes, remains ambiguous. We review the recent literature on weather index insurance and microcredit for farmers and find that both rural financial services have positive economic impacts, though benefits to the poorest populations remain controversial. Moreover, their impacts on the ecological systems are less studied and are found to be mainly negative. In addition, considering that both financial instruments have strengths and limitations, we argue that combination schemes (e.g. a hybrid product) may generate positive synergistic effects on building socioeconomic resilience to climate risks in agricultural regions. However, this may also add new economic risk to local financial institutions. This comprehensive review provides a reference for the potential benefits and risks of agricultural finance innovations. Further studies on the ecological impacts of rural financial services and the synergistic effects of the combination on socioeconomic and ecosystem resilience in rural contexts are needed to fill the current research gap.

Impacts and synergies of weather index insurance and microcredit in rural areas: a systematic review

Weather constitutes a major source of risks facing households in rural areas, which are being amplified under climate change. In this context, two main rural financial services, weather index insurance and microcredit, have been increasingly adopted by farmers worldwide. However, the understanding of the socioeconomic and ecological impacts of these rural finance schemes, including potential maladaptive outcomes, remains ambiguous. We review the recent literature on weather index insurance and microcredit for farmers and find that both rural financial services have positive economic impacts, though benefits to the poorest populations remain controversial. Moreover, their impacts on the ecological systems are less studied and are found to be mainly negative. In addition, considering that both financial instruments have strengths and limitations, we argue that combination schemes (e.g. a hybrid product) may generate positive synergistic effects on building socioeconomic resilience to climate risks in agricultural regions. However, this may also add new economic risk to local financial institutions. This comprehensive review provides a reference for the potential benefits and risks of agricultural finance innovations. Further studies on the ecological impacts of rural financial services and the synergistic effects of the combination on socioeconomic and ecosystem resilience in rural contexts are needed to fill the current research gap.

Impacts and synergies of weather index insurance and microcredit in rural areas: a systematic review

Weather constitutes a major source of risks facing households in rural areas, which are being amplified under climate change. In this context, two main rural financial services, weather index insurance and microcredit, have been increasingly adopted by farmers worldwide. However, the understanding of the socioeconomic and ecological impacts of these rural finance schemes, including potential maladaptive outcomes, remains ambiguous. We review the recent literature on weather index insurance and microcredit for farmers and find that both rural financial services have positive economic impacts, though benefits to the poorest populations remain controversial. Moreover, their impacts on the ecological systems are less studied and are found to be mainly negative. In addition, considering that both financial instruments have strengths and limitations, we argue that combination schemes (e.g. a hybrid product) may generate positive synergistic effects on building socioeconomic resilience to climate risks in agricultural regions. However, this may also add new economic risk to local financial institutions. This comprehensive review provides a reference for the potential benefits and risks of agricultural finance innovations. Further studies on the ecological impacts of rural financial services and the synergistic effects of the combination on socioeconomic and ecosystem resilience in rural contexts are needed to fill the current research gap.

Safeguarding research staff “in the field”: a blind spot in ethics guidelines

Across disciplines there is a large and increasing number of research projects that rely on data collection activities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, these are accompanied by an extensive range of ethical challenges. While the safeguarding of study participants is the primary aim of existing ethics guidelines, this paper argues that this “do no harm” principle should be extended to include research staff. This study is a comprehensive review of more than 80 existing ethics guidelines and protocols that reveals a lack of safeguarding research staff regarding the ethical challenges faced during data collection activities in LMICs. This is particularly the case when it comes to issues such as power imbalances, political risk, staff’s emotional wellbeing or dealing with feelings of guilt. Lead organizations are called upon to develop guiding principles that encompass the safeguarding of research staff, which are then to be adapted and translated into specific protocols and tools by institutions.

Safeguarding research staff “in the field”: a blind spot in ethics guidelines

Across disciplines there is a large and increasing number of research projects that rely on data collection activities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, these are accompanied by an extensive range of ethical challenges. While the safeguarding of study participants is the primary aim of existing ethics guidelines, this paper argues that this “do no harm” principle should be extended to include research staff. This study is a comprehensive review of more than 80 existing ethics guidelines and protocols that reveals a lack of safeguarding research staff regarding the ethical challenges faced during data collection activities in LMICs. This is particularly the case when it comes to issues such as power imbalances, political risk, staff’s emotional wellbeing or dealing with feelings of guilt. Lead organizations are called upon to develop guiding principles that encompass the safeguarding of research staff, which are then to be adapted and translated into specific protocols and tools by institutions.

Safeguarding research staff “in the field”: a blind spot in ethics guidelines

Across disciplines there is a large and increasing number of research projects that rely on data collection activities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, these are accompanied by an extensive range of ethical challenges. While the safeguarding of study participants is the primary aim of existing ethics guidelines, this paper argues that this “do no harm” principle should be extended to include research staff. This study is a comprehensive review of more than 80 existing ethics guidelines and protocols that reveals a lack of safeguarding research staff regarding the ethical challenges faced during data collection activities in LMICs. This is particularly the case when it comes to issues such as power imbalances, political risk, staff’s emotional wellbeing or dealing with feelings of guilt. Lead organizations are called upon to develop guiding principles that encompass the safeguarding of research staff, which are then to be adapted and translated into specific protocols and tools by institutions.

How to develop inclusive, sustainable urban spaces in the European Arctic and beyond: insights from Kiruna

At first glance, cities in the European Arctic differ from a traditional framing that is mostly shaped by southern discourses. Most of the remote cities have less inhabitants, need to adapt to a harsh climate and are confronted with impacts of the climate crisis, infrastructural challenges, outmigration and structural transformations. Moreover, many cities in the European Arctic were built on traditional Indigenous land and represent the nexus of urbanisation, (resource) extraction and colonialism. However, similar to cities in other parts of the world, also cities in the European Arctic are home to a diverse population: people with different professions, people from more southern regions, migrants from other parts of the world, youth and elderly people, Indigenous and non-Indigenous people live altogether and shape the identities of the city. However, this ideal of multiple identities and urban inclusiveness is contested. By exploring the case of Kiruna in Northern Sweden, this paper’s objective is twofold: Following an interdisciplinary approach through combing theoretical and conceptual lenses from engineering and social sciences, we firstly examine critically in how far different identities are visible and tangible in the selected city. Secondly, we argue for just and inclusive structures that are open to minorities’ identities as stated by the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development for achieving a more culturally sensitive sustainable urban development. This paper makes a strong case to reflect on urban colonial legacies and local impacts from the ongoing green transition in the European Arctic (and beyond), stress the relevance of the integration of different knowledges for sustainable (urban) development and establish inclusiveness as vital part of a just transition.

How to develop inclusive, sustainable urban spaces in the European Arctic and beyond: insights from Kiruna

At first glance, cities in the European Arctic differ from a traditional framing that is mostly shaped by southern discourses. Most of the remote cities have less inhabitants, need to adapt to a harsh climate and are confronted with impacts of the climate crisis, infrastructural challenges, outmigration and structural transformations. Moreover, many cities in the European Arctic were built on traditional Indigenous land and represent the nexus of urbanisation, (resource) extraction and colonialism. However, similar to cities in other parts of the world, also cities in the European Arctic are home to a diverse population: people with different professions, people from more southern regions, migrants from other parts of the world, youth and elderly people, Indigenous and non-Indigenous people live altogether and shape the identities of the city. However, this ideal of multiple identities and urban inclusiveness is contested. By exploring the case of Kiruna in Northern Sweden, this paper’s objective is twofold: Following an interdisciplinary approach through combing theoretical and conceptual lenses from engineering and social sciences, we firstly examine critically in how far different identities are visible and tangible in the selected city. Secondly, we argue for just and inclusive structures that are open to minorities’ identities as stated by the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development for achieving a more culturally sensitive sustainable urban development. This paper makes a strong case to reflect on urban colonial legacies and local impacts from the ongoing green transition in the European Arctic (and beyond), stress the relevance of the integration of different knowledges for sustainable (urban) development and establish inclusiveness as vital part of a just transition.

How to develop inclusive, sustainable urban spaces in the European Arctic and beyond: insights from Kiruna

At first glance, cities in the European Arctic differ from a traditional framing that is mostly shaped by southern discourses. Most of the remote cities have less inhabitants, need to adapt to a harsh climate and are confronted with impacts of the climate crisis, infrastructural challenges, outmigration and structural transformations. Moreover, many cities in the European Arctic were built on traditional Indigenous land and represent the nexus of urbanisation, (resource) extraction and colonialism. However, similar to cities in other parts of the world, also cities in the European Arctic are home to a diverse population: people with different professions, people from more southern regions, migrants from other parts of the world, youth and elderly people, Indigenous and non-Indigenous people live altogether and shape the identities of the city. However, this ideal of multiple identities and urban inclusiveness is contested. By exploring the case of Kiruna in Northern Sweden, this paper’s objective is twofold: Following an interdisciplinary approach through combing theoretical and conceptual lenses from engineering and social sciences, we firstly examine critically in how far different identities are visible and tangible in the selected city. Secondly, we argue for just and inclusive structures that are open to minorities’ identities as stated by the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development for achieving a more culturally sensitive sustainable urban development. This paper makes a strong case to reflect on urban colonial legacies and local impacts from the ongoing green transition in the European Arctic (and beyond), stress the relevance of the integration of different knowledges for sustainable (urban) development and establish inclusiveness as vital part of a just transition.

Strengthening Data to Protect Healthcare in Conflict Zones

European Peace Institute / News - Mon, 11/21/2022 - 16:04

Attacks on healthcare in situations of armed conflict have been reported at alarming levels over the past two decades. In response to this problem, the UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 2286, which urges states to collect data on attacks on medical personnel, transport, and facilities. This data is essential to understand the scale and scope of the problem, protect health services and workers, prioritize resources to those most impacted, prevent future attacks, and hold perpetrators accountable.

This paper examines why data on threats to and attacks on healthcare in conflict is important to protection, advocacy, and investigation and how it can be improved and harmonized. It provides an overview of existing data-collection efforts—namely, the Surveillance System for Attacks on Health Care (SSA) and the database produced by the Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition (SHCC) in partnership with Insecurity Insight—and identifies challenges and gaps at both the policy and technical levels.

This paper concludes with the following recommendations for the World Health Organization (WHO), other UN entities, UN member states, and NGOs:

  • The World Health Assembly should adopt a resolution calling on WHO to address the major concerns in the structure and operation of the SSA;
  • WHO should make technical improvements to the quality and presentation of data in the SSA and be open to a range of data-collection methodologies;
  • Other UN agencies, governments, and civil society organizations should take steps to improve the collection and sharing of data on attacks on healthcare to improve protection, prevention, and accountability; and
  • Governments, NGOs, and other actors should increase the funding and capacity of existing data-collection initiatives.

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