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Reconstituting social contracts in conflict-affected MENA countries: Whither Iraq and Libya?

This article discusses the prospects for forging new social contracts in highly fragile and conflict affected countries. Building on analytical insights from the political settlements and state fragility literature, conceptualising peacebuilding processes as efforts to forge social contracts enables us to address the roles of governments, social groups, citizens and external stakeholders. We discuss the potential for peacebuilding processes to realise social contracts by assessing societal perceptions of the core public good that citizens expect the state to provide, namely protection. We address two cases where ‘stateness’ was destroyed by foreign intervention and civil war: Iraq (since 2003) and Libya (since 2011). We discuss the troubled recent trajectories of efforts to build peace in Iraq and Libya along the substantive, spatial and temporal dimensions of the social contract. Drawing on interviews, survey results and estimates of civilian casualties, we take a ‘bottom-up’ perspective of their societies’ experiences and expectations regarding protection. We conclude that in both countries the provision of protection by the state and others runs counter to the expectations of significant parts of the population. At the national level, major social groups have been unable to overcome mutual distrust, while continued threats to physical security reduce the prospects that any social contract able to deliver other public goods can ever emerge. Existing political settlements in both countries have rewarded the politicization of ethno-sectarian identity (especially in Iraq) and have benefited economic war lordism (especially in Libya). We conclude that as social contracts at the national level are unlikely to emerge, the consequences of de-facto break ups of both countries must be acknowledged if social contracts at sub-national levels are to have any chance of delivering peace.

Reconstituting social contracts in conflict-affected MENA countries: Whither Iraq and Libya?

This article discusses the prospects for forging new social contracts in highly fragile and conflict affected countries. Building on analytical insights from the political settlements and state fragility literature, conceptualising peacebuilding processes as efforts to forge social contracts enables us to address the roles of governments, social groups, citizens and external stakeholders. We discuss the potential for peacebuilding processes to realise social contracts by assessing societal perceptions of the core public good that citizens expect the state to provide, namely protection. We address two cases where ‘stateness’ was destroyed by foreign intervention and civil war: Iraq (since 2003) and Libya (since 2011). We discuss the troubled recent trajectories of efforts to build peace in Iraq and Libya along the substantive, spatial and temporal dimensions of the social contract. Drawing on interviews, survey results and estimates of civilian casualties, we take a ‘bottom-up’ perspective of their societies’ experiences and expectations regarding protection. We conclude that in both countries the provision of protection by the state and others runs counter to the expectations of significant parts of the population. At the national level, major social groups have been unable to overcome mutual distrust, while continued threats to physical security reduce the prospects that any social contract able to deliver other public goods can ever emerge. Existing political settlements in both countries have rewarded the politicization of ethno-sectarian identity (especially in Iraq) and have benefited economic war lordism (especially in Libya). We conclude that as social contracts at the national level are unlikely to emerge, the consequences of de-facto break ups of both countries must be acknowledged if social contracts at sub-national levels are to have any chance of delivering peace.

Reconstituting social contracts in conflict-affected MENA countries: Whither Iraq and Libya?

This article discusses the prospects for forging new social contracts in highly fragile and conflict affected countries. Building on analytical insights from the political settlements and state fragility literature, conceptualising peacebuilding processes as efforts to forge social contracts enables us to address the roles of governments, social groups, citizens and external stakeholders. We discuss the potential for peacebuilding processes to realise social contracts by assessing societal perceptions of the core public good that citizens expect the state to provide, namely protection. We address two cases where ‘stateness’ was destroyed by foreign intervention and civil war: Iraq (since 2003) and Libya (since 2011). We discuss the troubled recent trajectories of efforts to build peace in Iraq and Libya along the substantive, spatial and temporal dimensions of the social contract. Drawing on interviews, survey results and estimates of civilian casualties, we take a ‘bottom-up’ perspective of their societies’ experiences and expectations regarding protection. We conclude that in both countries the provision of protection by the state and others runs counter to the expectations of significant parts of the population. At the national level, major social groups have been unable to overcome mutual distrust, while continued threats to physical security reduce the prospects that any social contract able to deliver other public goods can ever emerge. Existing political settlements in both countries have rewarded the politicization of ethno-sectarian identity (especially in Iraq) and have benefited economic war lordism (especially in Libya). We conclude that as social contracts at the national level are unlikely to emerge, the consequences of de-facto break ups of both countries must be acknowledged if social contracts at sub-national levels are to have any chance of delivering peace.

Polycrisis as an opportunity for development cooperation? Building a better global architecture for international development cooperation after the COVID-19 pandemic

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the multiple crises it unleashed around the world coincided with the beginning of the period that the world leaders dubbed the “Decade of Action” to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Launched at the beginning of 2020, it aims to instill a sense of urgency, thereby spurring action, unlocking development finance, and harnessing innovative approaches for the attainment of the SDGs and the promise of “leaving no one behind”. A strong call for action was based on the realization that the world was seriously off-track in its progress towards sustainable development. Delivering on the promises of financing and the commitments of partnership is key for progress across the goals.

Polycrisis as an opportunity for development cooperation? Building a better global architecture for international development cooperation after the COVID-19 pandemic

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the multiple crises it unleashed around the world coincided with the beginning of the period that the world leaders dubbed the “Decade of Action” to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Launched at the beginning of 2020, it aims to instill a sense of urgency, thereby spurring action, unlocking development finance, and harnessing innovative approaches for the attainment of the SDGs and the promise of “leaving no one behind”. A strong call for action was based on the realization that the world was seriously off-track in its progress towards sustainable development. Delivering on the promises of financing and the commitments of partnership is key for progress across the goals.

Polycrisis as an opportunity for development cooperation? Building a better global architecture for international development cooperation after the COVID-19 pandemic

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the multiple crises it unleashed around the world coincided with the beginning of the period that the world leaders dubbed the “Decade of Action” to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Launched at the beginning of 2020, it aims to instill a sense of urgency, thereby spurring action, unlocking development finance, and harnessing innovative approaches for the attainment of the SDGs and the promise of “leaving no one behind”. A strong call for action was based on the realization that the world was seriously off-track in its progress towards sustainable development. Delivering on the promises of financing and the commitments of partnership is key for progress across the goals.

Claus Michelsen: „Historischer Wirtschaftseinbruch schlägt tiefe Kerbe“

Die deutsche Wirtschaft ist neuesten Zahlen des Statistischen Bundesamtes zufolge im zweiten Quartal um gut zehn Prozent gegenüber dem Vorquartal eingebrochen. Gegenüber dem Vorjahr fiel die Wirtschaftsleistung sogar knapp zwölf Prozent geringer aus. Dazu ein Statement von Claus Michelsen, Konjunkturchef des Deutschen Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin):

Die Wirtschaftsleistung in Deutschland ist im zweiten Quartal dramatisch eingebrochen. Minus gut zehn Prozent bedeuten ein tiefes Loch, aus dem sich die deutsche Wirtschaft nur Stück für Stück wird heraushangeln können. Es dauert wahrscheinlich mindestens zwei Jahre, bis die Wirtschaftsleistung das Vor-Corona-Niveau wieder erreicht. Darüber hängt das Damoklesschwert weiterer Infektionswellen hierzulande und in den wichtigsten Absatzmärkten. Der Einbruch des Bruttoinlandsprodukts war allerdings in dieser Größenordnung zu erwarten. Wichtig ist nun nach vorne zu schauen: Die Wirtschaftspolitik hat größtenteils gut reagiert, die Einkommen vieler Haushalte stabilisiert und Unternehmen das Überleben gesichert. Auch das beschlossene Konjunkturpaket beinhaltet sinnvolle Maßnahmen, die eine kurzfristige Erholung der Wirtschaft begünstigen. Wichtig ist allerdings eine weitere Stärkung der Investitionstätigkeit mit einem Fokus auf eine digitale, klima- und ressourcenschonende Wirtschaftsweise. Es gilt nicht nur die Folgen der Corona-Krise auszugleichen, sondern die deutsche Wirtschaft wettbewerbsfähig und nachhaltig aufzustellen und so das Wachstumspotential zu erhöhen. Innovative Gründungen, effiziente Bildungssysteme und umweltschonende Infrastrukturen sind in diesem Zusammenhang nur einige der möglichen Ansatzpunkte. In diesem Sinne bietet der historische Einbruch der deutschen Wirtschaft auch Chancen.

Kinderbetreuung in Corona-Zeiten: Mütter tragen die Hauptlast, aber Väter holen auf

Zusammenfassung:

Die coronabedingten Schließungen von Schulen und Kinderbetreuungseinrichtungen im April und Mai 2020 haben viele Eltern vor eine immense Herausforderung gestellt. Plötzlich mussten Kinder ganztags zu Hause betreut und beschult werden. Wie aktuelle Ergebnisse der SOEP-CoV-Studie zeigen, lag die Hauptlast der Kinderbetreuung während des Lockdowns bei den Müttern. Gleichzeitig investierten die Väter überproportional mehr Zeit in die Betreuung ihrer Kinder als zuvor. Durch das Homeschooling waren insbesondere Alleinerziehende, aber auch weniger gut gebildete Eltern stark belastet.


IPI MENA, Culture Authority & Diplomats Call for Culture of Peace

European Peace Institute / News - Sun, 07/26/2020 - 22:04

H.E. Sheikha Mai bint Mohammed Al Khalifa, President of the Bahrain Authority for Culture & Antiquities and IPI MENA Director Nejib Friji

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Addressing the Bahrain Authority for Culture & Antiquities (BACA) and diplomats on July 26th, IPI MENA Director Nejib Friji highlighted the important roles education and youth have in cultivating a culture of peace, commending BACA’s efforts to pass the cultural message to the future generation as agents of change.

Leading the webinar, H.E. Sheikha Mai bint Mohammed Al Khalifa, President of the BACA, pointed out the importance of promoting the culture of peace through the cultural seasons organized by the Authority, especially during the Bahrain Summer Festival, in which large numbers of children and youth come together. Sheikha Mai said the participation of 15 embassies during the celebration’s 12th year represents clear support of multiculturalism and the values of peace, coexistence, and respect. She said that this year’s program, under the slogan “Together, Virtually,” emphasized the sustainability of BACA’s cultural projects and worked to strengthen the cultural infrastructure in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Mr. Friji underlined the need for a culture of peace now more than ever, in light of rising national populism and unilateralism globally, which has been further exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic. He called for the exploration of connections between culture, peace, security, and sustainable development to build a foundation for mutual respect, prosperity, and broad-based inclusion. Mr. Friji commended the festival’s emphasis on inclusion in relation to online educational activities, at a time when youth could learn from their communities about building resilience, tolerance, and peace, amid global crises.

Sheikha Hala bint Mohammed Al Khalifa, Director General of the Culture and Arts Department said this year’s festival reflects the rich culture of Bahrain and its intangible heritage, and stressed the importance of providing continuous spaces for creativity and communication despite the extenuating circumstances of Covid-19. She hopes this year’s events will reach a wider audience using social media as the platform, and include increased participation from groups such as the youth.

The conference was attended by 18 embassies, including: the ambassadors of Indonesia, France, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Russia, United Kingdom, Yemen; Charges D’affaires of Brunei Darussalam, Germany, Italy, Iraq; and diplomats from Oman, Malaysia, Thailand, and UAE, who all praised BACA’s role in sustaining the cultural movement in Bahrain and enhancing communication between the kingdom and the world.

Implementing the UN Management Reform: Progress and Implications for Peace Operations

European Peace Institute / News - Thu, 07/23/2020 - 18:48
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In September 2017, UN Secretary-General António Guterres proposed a new management paradigm to enable the UN to confront global challenges and remain relevant in a fast-changing world. The new management paradigm would bring decision making closer to the point of delivery, empower managers, increase accountability and transparency, reduce duplicative structures and overlapping mandates, increase support for the field, and reform the planning and budgeting processes.

Eighteen months after the management reform came into effect, this paper examines the implementation of the reform and its impact on peace operations from the perspective of both UN headquarters and the field. The paper highlights the current state of the reform, identifies good practices, flags areas for possible improvement or attention, and offers forward-looking recommendations for UN headquarters, mission leaders and managers in the field, global or regional support offices, member states, and staff at large.

While the reform is still a work in progress, it has continued to gain momentum, and implementation has become more systematic. Nonetheless, the paper concludes that greater effort must be made to get input from personnel in peace operations to ensure that the reform responds to their needs and constraints. More work is also needed to fully realize the potential of the management reform and ensure that it aligns with parallel reforms underway in the UN peace and security architecture and development system.

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Impact-Driven Peacekeeping Partnerships for Capacity Building and Training

European Peace Institute / News - Wed, 07/22/2020 - 17:22

Download White Paper

On July 22nd, IPI together with the governments of Ethiopia, Indonesia, Japan and the Republic of Korea is cohosting a virtual discussion on “Impact-Driven Peacekeeping Partnerships for Capacity Building and Training.”

In the context of the Secretary-General’s Action for Peacekeeping initiative (A4P), the next United Nations Peacekeeping Ministerial Conference, scheduled for April 2021 in Seoul, aims to strengthen UN peacekeeping, including by improving the performance and impact of UN operations; closing capability gaps through concrete pledges; facilitating new partnerships and strengthening existing ones; and promoting systemic changes that will improve operations.

The UN’s A4P Implementation Action Plan identifies four priority areas for training and capacity building: improving the security of peacekeepers; advancing UN-AU capacity-building of AU peace support operations; expanding triangular partnership between TCC/PCCs and member states; and supporting effective performance and accountability, including by operationalizing the light coordination mechanism to deconflict & share best practices of training programs.

This discussion, which draws on a white paper prepared by IPI, was intended to help member states plan for and prepare to make concrete, meaningful and impactful capacity building and training pledges at the 2021 Ministerial. Speakers addressed the current state and recent trends in capacity building and training, examined areas where further progress is required, and suggested priorities and recommendations on how member states, together with the UN, can move towards more impact-driven partnerships in these areas.

Opening Remarks:
H.E. Mr. Cho Hyun, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the UN
H.E. Mr. Dian Triansyah Djani, Permanent Representative of Indonesia to the UN

Speakers:
Mr. Arthur Boutellis, IPI Senior Non-Resident Adviser
Mr. Mark Pedersen, Director, Integrated Training Service, UN Department of Peace Operations
Ms. Kristina Zetterlund, Counsellor, Civilian Adviser, Permanent Mission of Sweden to the  UN
Mr. Michael L. Smith, Director, Office of Global Programs and Initiatives, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, U.S. Department of State
Mr. Fumio Yamazaki, Director, International Peace and Security Cooperation Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
Mr. Dawit Yirga, Director, International Organizations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia

Moderator:
Dr. Namie Di Razza, IPI Senior Fellow and Head of Protection of Civilians

Monitoring in German bilateral development cooperation: a case study of agricultural, rural development and food security projects

Monitoring and evaluation have gained importance in recent decades in development cooperation to increase evidence, and thereby aid effectiveness. However, the focus on measuring results needs to be coordinated with other strategically important aspects of the aid and development effectiveness agenda, such as adapting to local needs and harmonisation among development actors. Combining these different goals remains a challenge in the development community. Studies show that most donors have similar problems when measuring results. The quality of the collected data can oftentimes be questioned because data collection methods lack methodological rigor. The data collected and used is often of limited relevance for the project. Reporting by implementing agencies to BMZ focusses more on accountability than on using the results for learning. This discussion paper offers an in-depth analysis of the efforts undertaken by German bilateral development cooperation actors to measure results and in how far the reported data can contribute to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation. Thirteen projects by German implementing agencies GIZ and KfW were selected and analysed by means of project documents and interviews with staff. In addition, general monitoring and evaluation guidelines of German development cooperation were consulted. The results show that BMZ does not have a comprehensive results-based management system in place for planning, monitoring and evaluation in German development cooperation, which leads to quality challenges with regard to the collected data. Many projects do not have a comprehensive theory of change, use methodologically contestable indicators and are not able to demonstrate causality between their activities and the results measured. Indicators are often selected with only the limited involvement of partner countries, and there are challenges with using partner countries’ secondary data. BMZ has recently started a reform process with the aim of establishing a more comprehensive RBM system and providing additional guidance to projects on how to define indicators and measure results. The findings of this paper offer important lessons learnt and recommendations for the reform process.

Monitoring in German bilateral development cooperation: a case study of agricultural, rural development and food security projects

Monitoring and evaluation have gained importance in recent decades in development cooperation to increase evidence, and thereby aid effectiveness. However, the focus on measuring results needs to be coordinated with other strategically important aspects of the aid and development effectiveness agenda, such as adapting to local needs and harmonisation among development actors. Combining these different goals remains a challenge in the development community. Studies show that most donors have similar problems when measuring results. The quality of the collected data can oftentimes be questioned because data collection methods lack methodological rigor. The data collected and used is often of limited relevance for the project. Reporting by implementing agencies to BMZ focusses more on accountability than on using the results for learning. This discussion paper offers an in-depth analysis of the efforts undertaken by German bilateral development cooperation actors to measure results and in how far the reported data can contribute to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation. Thirteen projects by German implementing agencies GIZ and KfW were selected and analysed by means of project documents and interviews with staff. In addition, general monitoring and evaluation guidelines of German development cooperation were consulted. The results show that BMZ does not have a comprehensive results-based management system in place for planning, monitoring and evaluation in German development cooperation, which leads to quality challenges with regard to the collected data. Many projects do not have a comprehensive theory of change, use methodologically contestable indicators and are not able to demonstrate causality between their activities and the results measured. Indicators are often selected with only the limited involvement of partner countries, and there are challenges with using partner countries’ secondary data. BMZ has recently started a reform process with the aim of establishing a more comprehensive RBM system and providing additional guidance to projects on how to define indicators and measure results. The findings of this paper offer important lessons learnt and recommendations for the reform process.

Monitoring in German bilateral development cooperation: a case study of agricultural, rural development and food security projects

Monitoring and evaluation have gained importance in recent decades in development cooperation to increase evidence, and thereby aid effectiveness. However, the focus on measuring results needs to be coordinated with other strategically important aspects of the aid and development effectiveness agenda, such as adapting to local needs and harmonisation among development actors. Combining these different goals remains a challenge in the development community. Studies show that most donors have similar problems when measuring results. The quality of the collected data can oftentimes be questioned because data collection methods lack methodological rigor. The data collected and used is often of limited relevance for the project. Reporting by implementing agencies to BMZ focusses more on accountability than on using the results for learning. This discussion paper offers an in-depth analysis of the efforts undertaken by German bilateral development cooperation actors to measure results and in how far the reported data can contribute to increase the effectiveness of development cooperation. Thirteen projects by German implementing agencies GIZ and KfW were selected and analysed by means of project documents and interviews with staff. In addition, general monitoring and evaluation guidelines of German development cooperation were consulted. The results show that BMZ does not have a comprehensive results-based management system in place for planning, monitoring and evaluation in German development cooperation, which leads to quality challenges with regard to the collected data. Many projects do not have a comprehensive theory of change, use methodologically contestable indicators and are not able to demonstrate causality between their activities and the results measured. Indicators are often selected with only the limited involvement of partner countries, and there are challenges with using partner countries’ secondary data. BMZ has recently started a reform process with the aim of establishing a more comprehensive RBM system and providing additional guidance to projects on how to define indicators and measure results. The findings of this paper offer important lessons learnt and recommendations for the reform process.

Migration and the 2030 Agenda: making everyone count - migrants and refugees in the Sustainable Development Goals

With the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its guiding principle “Leave no one behind”, the international community has set itself the goal of improving the living conditions of poor and marginalised groups. In many cases, these groups include migrants and refugees. A sophisticated review process has been set up to monitor the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Here, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) play a decisive role. Migrants and refugees were explicitly included from the outset. However, this creates additional data requirements: Data disaggregated by migratory status is necessary to capture changes in the living conditions of migrant population groups within the structured review and follow up process of the SDGs. This disaggregation allows to draw conclusions about the well-being of migrants and refugees. SDG 17.18 explicitly calls for the differentiated consideration of this population group in the SDGs, where relevant, and the necessary building up of capacities for data collection and analysis.
Census data, data from national administrative registers and sample surveys are possible data sources to achieve this objective. These data sets, however, differ in their scope and extent to which they capture different types of information. Hence, each represents only a partial reality.
Five years after the adoption of the SDGs, the balance sheet is sobering: Data disaggregated by migratory status are still lacking in most countries. As a result, there is a growing danger that existing disadvantages will become more permanent or more pronounced. In line with its overarching commitment to the implementation of the SDGs, the German government should work to ensure that migrants and refugees are systematically taken into account in the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda. For the remaining period until 2030 – touted as the Decade of Action and Delivery - the following recommendations are derived:
•    Harmonise migration definitions: Data collections should apply definitions and methods recommended by the UN Statistical Commission.
•    Support data collection: The personnel and financial capacities of the national statistical authorities in partner countries should be systematically strengthened.
•    Strengthen synergies: Bridges should be built between migration-specific data initiatives and thematically broader data initiatives that are closely linked to the SDG process.
•    Expand migration expertise in the SDG review process: Migration expertise should be more systematically integrated into the SDG review process than has been the case to date in order to take greater account of changes in the living conditions of migrants and refugees.

Migration and the 2030 Agenda: making everyone count - migrants and refugees in the Sustainable Development Goals

With the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its guiding principle “Leave no one behind”, the international community has set itself the goal of improving the living conditions of poor and marginalised groups. In many cases, these groups include migrants and refugees. A sophisticated review process has been set up to monitor the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Here, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) play a decisive role. Migrants and refugees were explicitly included from the outset. However, this creates additional data requirements: Data disaggregated by migratory status is necessary to capture changes in the living conditions of migrant population groups within the structured review and follow up process of the SDGs. This disaggregation allows to draw conclusions about the well-being of migrants and refugees. SDG 17.18 explicitly calls for the differentiated consideration of this population group in the SDGs, where relevant, and the necessary building up of capacities for data collection and analysis.
Census data, data from national administrative registers and sample surveys are possible data sources to achieve this objective. These data sets, however, differ in their scope and extent to which they capture different types of information. Hence, each represents only a partial reality.
Five years after the adoption of the SDGs, the balance sheet is sobering: Data disaggregated by migratory status are still lacking in most countries. As a result, there is a growing danger that existing disadvantages will become more permanent or more pronounced. In line with its overarching commitment to the implementation of the SDGs, the German government should work to ensure that migrants and refugees are systematically taken into account in the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda. For the remaining period until 2030 – touted as the Decade of Action and Delivery - the following recommendations are derived:
•    Harmonise migration definitions: Data collections should apply definitions and methods recommended by the UN Statistical Commission.
•    Support data collection: The personnel and financial capacities of the national statistical authorities in partner countries should be systematically strengthened.
•    Strengthen synergies: Bridges should be built between migration-specific data initiatives and thematically broader data initiatives that are closely linked to the SDG process.
•    Expand migration expertise in the SDG review process: Migration expertise should be more systematically integrated into the SDG review process than has been the case to date in order to take greater account of changes in the living conditions of migrants and refugees.

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