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@BritishPolice: Research, Policy and Community on the Frontiers of Social Media

Tue, 09/06/2015 - 14:25

On Sunday I had the opportunity to chat, via direct message on Twitter, with a Chief Inspector from West Midlands Police. He had tweeted pictures and comments from his course on Public Order Policing, and I had some follow up questions for him. Over several exchanges he happily discussed with me official tactics and approaches, as well as a bit of his experience. For a variety of reasons I value this sort of first hand, practitioner based material in my research. This was not the first time I have used Twitter to further my understanding or sustain my interpretations, but the fact that I can do so speaks to something much more important.

Policing in the United Kingdom is in the midst of a quiet but revolutionary experiment to make itself proactively available to the public by way of social media, and particularly Twitter, in unprecedented numbers and across the chain of command, to include senior leadership. The prospects for this, for its influence on society and policing, are momentous. While its ramifications cannot yet be known, there are three areas in which this phenomenon highlight important opportunities across research, policy and community relations: the human element which emerges, the self-narrative or portrait of the institution and its character, and the engagement philosophy.

First, to the human element. Many of the police accounts, corporate and informal, are associated with an individual. Not just a role, but a particular character and human emerges from the communications. I am a memoir, experiential based military historian by training, and within that as well I value the quotidian and the little things that are said and done for the wisdom it conveys. Happiness, Limeade on Guadalcanal… was written in earnest, as it must be accepted that while seemingly irrelevant on the surface, from these details of the personal experience often emerge profound insights. [1] And the material in public and on social media is just the tip of the iceberg. The human element has a practical story to tell about the work, in general and in detail, and deserves more attention in the course of police research.

Turning to a more meta perspective, taken together this messaging creates the self-image of British policing. From both its personal and corporate accounts, in words and images, the characters of the forces and their constituent parts, as well as the broader national service, are created. Assessing this, in its grand vista and detail deserves attention as well for its influence in policy, practice or communications. At the practical level, for example, to understand that how the police conceive themselves in a particular situation or issue differs from how they are viewed by the public will help to identify areas for redress.

Finally, the matter of engagement and Police-Community Relations (PCR) has particular resonance in this discussion. Timely to do so, as BBC’s “The Met” has people talking. Having seen it, I would say the work is very interesting, definitely worth a watch. [2] Throughout, the participants confronted a host of hard issues about community relations, particularly those relating to race and policing. And they are discussing it today. Many of the individuals mentioned above are on Twitter answering questions and comments regarding the documentary. And as individuals it is clear that many of them are compassionately engaged with their work. On a purely social media front, thinking back to the disorders, it is a long way since the Met was overwhelmed by mass BBM’s, and one wonders how the police would use their new presence in similar circumstances today. More importantly, the documentary identifies the clear rift still to mend. Improving identification between police and disaffected members of the community will require effort across many fronts and over time. Nevertheless, what the Twitter activity of policing suggests, both online and in the metropolis (and the UK at large), is that the police themselves are open to, if not actively interested in, expanding and improving their conversation with the public they serve. It will be interesting to track how this philosophy of engagement will be taken up in and by the challenged communities.

Perhaps the recourse to social media is natural. Gregarious by nature, the British Bobby has simply taken up a new beat. What has changed is that this activity is now visible to a greater percentage and cross section of society. Subtly, 140 characters at a time, over the course of thousands of tweets, this will affect the shape of policing and consent, as well as the understanding of both.

 

 

 

Notes:

1 Funny to discuss that blog in this one on social media and Twitter as its title was too long to tweet in its entirety. Sigh.

2 One point I would make, as it focused on the Duggan shooting, the riots, and the influence of the Inquest verdict, it was strange not to include something on the vigil the following Saturday. Its peaceful terms deserved highlighting.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Why chess is not the right metaphor for human conflict

Wed, 03/06/2015 - 16:39

Author: Giorgio Bertolin is a doctoral candidate in the Defence Studies Department of King’s College London.

 

On the cover of books and journals, or as the logo of consultancy firms and think tanks, chess is omnipresent when the topic concerns international security. A set of chiselled wooden pieces is indeed much more elegant than exploding IEDs or wounded fighters. After all, the game of chess seems to represent a battle between two medieval armies, as the presence of knights and siege towers (the rooks) suggests. But can chess really represent a good metaphor for human conflict? I contend that it does not, and that the use of chess to allude to the realities of war is little more than an insult to Caissa. Comparing chess to armed conflict is overly simplistic, and can lead us to inadvertently attribute wrong connotations to the latter.

In chess, the two sides enjoy the same amount of force. They can be said to be equal, even though white’s privilege to move first gives them the edge in the initial phase of the opening. On the other hand, perfect symmetry is virtually non-existent in the reality of warfare. There are just too many variables influencing the magnitude of the forces in the field both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore, archives of military history would be scanned in vain searching for such an unlikely event as a battle between two perfectly equal armies. So-called asymmetrical conflicts evidence this tendency even more starkly, in sharp contrast to the clash represented on the chessboard. Moreover, in chess just two players are involved in the fight. While this can be a realistic scenario, contemporary conflicts are often more complex. This is the reason why the US Marine Corps, for example, has added a “neutral cell” (green) to the planning of combat operations, an activity that previously used to contemplate just friendly forces (blue) versus hostile entities (red).

Deliberately giving the enemy more time is an option endorsed by doctrine in certain types of operations. This option is not available to the chess player, who can lose tempo but cannot avoid the obligation to move. This is particularly important in the endgame, when a seemingly winning position can result in a draw because of this rule. The possibility to hold back fire is particularly important in the contemporary landscape, where carefully conducted information operations can leverage the combatants’ actions to produce considerable psychological effects.

Chess is a zero-sum game. Many theorists, in particular those belonging to the school of classical realism, argue that international confrontations are a zero-sum game as well. While this is debatable at the political level, at the strategic level this statement is unconvincing. The influence of non-rational, cultural factors can be massive. Rationality limits choices in chess as much as cultural factors limit choices in warfare. There are no ruses of war in chess, whereas thinking outside of the box has enabled more than one commander to overturn a seemingly stronger enemy.

A flat battlefield, two armies lined up and tidily facing each other, each one waiting for its turn to strike. This situation can be applied to chess and to the skirmishes of the Seven Years’ War – and a very restricted number of other cases. Geography in chess is so abstract that it bears little resemblance to the geographies in which contemporary conflicts take place. Yet, geography is one of the most important variables in warfare. Urban operations, rural insurgencies, and space warfare evidence a broadening of the battlefield, and a crucial role for the peculiar features of the landscape in terms of physical and human geography.

In chess, decapitation strikes work by definition, since the ultimate goal of the game is to checkmate the king. It is moot whether this can be applied to the reality of warfare. Decapitation strikes came to the spotlight with the recent deployment of lethal UAVs – such as the Predator and, especially, the Reaper – in the fight against organised terrorism. In many ways the fight against terrorist networks is a fight against a Lernean Hydra, and decapitation strikes, while generally useful, are not decisive. In other conflicts they can be more relevant, but the situation is still distant from the mathematical clarity of chess. The main obstacle is the availability of viable substitutes to guide an organisation, individuals that sometimes prove to be more talented and innovative than their predecessors. The king is dead, long live the king.

It must be admitted that there are some interesting similarities between chess and human conflict. To begin with, pattern recognition has advantages and disadvantages in both activities. This process is useful to capitalise lessons learned, but at the same time patterns risk crystallisation into dogmatic assumptions that limit strategic thinking. Secondly, in both chess and war tactical actions can have strategic consequences. Mission command and the strategic corporal concept are expressions of this trend in contemporary warfare. Then, it must be noted how the value of chess pieces is subordinated to other factors, such as tempo and position. Again, this is mirrored in the dynamic reality of armed conflicts, where details make the difference, and material capabilities alone are not sufficient to guarantee victory. The presence of these correspondences, however interesting, does not justify the extensive use of chess as the signifier for a human phenomenon that cannot be reduced to a symbol.

 

The use of chess as a metaphor for war can be misleading. Both chess and war are far more complex than this analogy suggests. And, in other respects, they are simpler. They are qualitatively different, and not as correlated as it may seem on the surface. It would be useless to look for alternative icons. Liberating chess from war, and war from chess, is a sign of respect for activities that are otherwise being trivialised.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Beyond Deschamps: Addressing Sexual Harassment and Assault in the Military

Mon, 01/06/2015 - 11:00

Welcome to this week’s CCLKOW discussion piece. Former Supreme Court judge Marie Deschamps recently released a report condemning the extent of sexual harassment within the Canadian Armed Forces. This has prompted calls for change and the formation of a fact-finding mission to examine how cases of harassment and assault are handled in other countries, such as the United States and United Kingdom. This week, we reflect on the nature and extent of the problem in these countries and what can be done moving forward. Read the piece and join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW.

Late last month, a report regarding sexual harassment in the Canadian Forces (CF) was released. Authored by former Supreme Court judge Marie Deschamps, the report is a damning indictment of how the armed forces address harassment.[i] Deschamps’ recommendations include changes to policy that would allow ‘victims to be able to either formally report incidents of sexual misconduct, or simply request support services without having to trigger a formal complaint.’[ii] In addition, she has called for the creation of an independent agency to investigate cases.[iii] The release of the Deschamps report has sparked significant controversy and further allegations in connection to cadets at the Royal Military College in Kingston.[iv] Major General Christine Whitecross has been tasked with spearheading the military’s efforts to address the report’s recommendations. Over the following months, Whitecross will travel to countries such as the United States and United Kingdom in order to assess how Canada’s allies have tackled the same problem.[v]

Throughout the past decade, the United States has made a number of key advancements in confronting reports of sexual harassment and assault. In 2005, Congress created the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Office or SAPRO to, ‘provide oversight, guidance and accountability of sexual assaults within the Department of Defense.’[vi] Furthermore, US military units include sexual assault officers, ‘who are responsible for implementing policies as well as receiving complaints.’[vii] Finally, complaints can, ‘either be restricted, meaning they don’t trigger an investigation, or unrestricted.’[viii] Despite these developments, formidable obstacles to change remain. Former Marine Greg Jacob of the Service Women’s Action Network has pointed out that SAPRO primarily gathers data and does not have the power to change policy. Moreover, he has underlined that unit commanders remain responsible for deciding whether to proceed with the prosecution of cases. Jacob and others have argued that an external authority should deal with these complaints.[ix] The release of relevant statistical data has also made it clear that harassment and assault remain a major problem. A recent US Department of Defense study concluded that in 2014, ‘at least 18,900 service members—10,400 men and 8,500 women—experienced unwanted sexual contact.’[x] However, only around 10% of reported cases led to courts martial.[xi] In addition, a RAND military workplace study indicated that around 55% of respondents experienced some form of bullying or retaliation after reporting an assault.[xii]

Across the Atlantic, the conviction of Sergeant Edwin Mee for, ‘16 sex attacks on nine female recruits,’ has served to draw attention to this issue in the British armed forces.[xiii] The 2014 Armed Forces Continuous Attitude Survey, commissioned by the Ministry of Defence (MoD), noted that roughly 10% of personnel stated that, ‘they have been the subject of discrimination, harassment or bullying in a Service environment in the last 12 months.’[xiv] Figures secured by BBC reporter Sima Kotecha through a Freedom of Information request also revealed that, ‘75 allegations of rape and 150 of sexual assault were made to military police between 2011 and 2013.’[xv] Although there have been calls for change in the media, a spokesperson for the MoD has argued that there is no evidence to suggest that these problems are any more prevalent in the military than in wider British society.[xvi]

Sexual harassment and assault are often presented as issues that only concern servicewomen. This is not the case. These problems can seriously impact the lives and career paths of both female and male soldiers. The vast majority of service personnel in Canada, the US and UK serve honourably and represent values of both integrity and respect. Consequently, it is vitally important that allegations of harassment, assault, bullying or violence of any kind be dealt with swiftly. However, these problems cannot be solved through policy change alone. Brigadier Nicky Moffat of the British Army has argued that some officers rely too heavily on, ‘equality and diversity statements,’ to address the matter and believe the ‘job done.’[xvii] Instead, Moffat suggests that, ‘every leader needs to make clear that this sort of behaviour is unacceptable. It’s about speaking out and making sure your voice is heard and understood.’[xviii] The authors of a Human Rights Watch publication on the subject have also identified strong leadership as a central driver of change. The military can begin to encourage this process by recognising both senior and junior leaders who respond effectively to abuse.[xix] This will create a safer environment for all soldiers, both present and future.

The question for this week is:

 How can officers at all levels encourage lasting change?

[i] Paul Koring and Bill Curry, ‘Canadian Forces turn to US for advice on combating sexual harassment,’ Globe and Mail (1 May 2015), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/canadian-forces-turns-to-us-for-guidance-on-combating-sexual-harassment/article24229697/.

[ii] Lee Berthiaume, ‘Canadian military looks to US counterpart on dealing with sexual misconduct,’ Ottawa Citizen (14 May 2015), http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/canadian-military-looks-to-u-s-counterpart-on-dealing-with-sexual-misconduct

[iii] Bill Curry, ‘Canadian Forces to create independent agency to handle misconduct complaints,’ Globe and Mail (1 May 2015), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/canadian-forces-to-create-independent-agency-to-handle-misconduct-complaints/article24223640/

[iv] James Cudmore, ‘Royal Military College facing new cadet assault allegation,’ CBC News (27 May 2015), http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/royal-military-college-facing-new-cadet-assault-allegation-1.3089634

[v] Koring and Curry, ‘Canadian Forces turn to US,’ (1 May 2015).

[vi] Greg Jacob and Estefania Ponti, ‘Learning from our Allies: Reforming the US Military to Stop Sexual Violence,’ Service Women’s Action Network, http://servicewomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Learning-From-Our-Allies_Final.pdf

[vii] Berthiaume, ‘Canadian military looks to US counterpart,’ (14 May 2015).

[viii] Ibid.

[ix] Ibid.

[x] United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military Fiscal Year 2014 (22 Apr 2015), RefID: D03CD9B6, http://sapr.mil/public/docs/reports/FY14_Annual/FY14_DoD_SAPRO_Annual_Report_on_Sexual_Assault.pdf

[xi] Koring and Curry, ‘Canadian Forces turn to US,’ (1 May 2015).

[xii] Andrew R Morral, Kristie L Gore, Terry L Schell, Barbara Bicksler, Coreen Farris, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Lisa H Jaycox, Dean Kilpatrick, Stephan Kistler, Amy Street, Terri Tanielian, and Kayla M Williams, Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the US Military: Highlights from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9841.html

[xiii] Sima Kotecha, ‘Army must “speak out” against harassment, says brigadier,’ BBC News (19 May 2015), http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-32780009; ‘Army sergeant Edwin Mee guilty of more sex attacks,’ BBC News (6 May 2015), http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-32610403.

[xiv] Ministry of Defence, Statistical Series 6-Other Bulletin 6.03—Armed Forces Continuous Attitude Survey 2014 (21 May 2014).

[xv] Kotecha, ‘Army must “speak out” against harassment,’ (19 May 2015).

[xvi] ‘Male rape prevalent in UK army, Ministry of Defence figures reveal,’ IBTimes (20 Dec 2014), http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/male-rape-prevalent-uk-army-ministry-defence-figures-reveal-1480413

[xvii] Brigadier Nicky Moffat, as quoted in, Kotecha, ‘Army must “speak out” against harassment,’ (19 May 2015).

[xviii] Ibid.

[xix] Human Rights Watch, Embattled: Retaliation against Sexual Assault Survivors in the US Military (Washington DC: HRW, 2015), http://www.hrw.org/reports/2015/05/18/embattled-0

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

The Gathering Storm? Brexit and the Future of European Defence and Security

Tue, 26/05/2015 - 11:00

Following the recent UK election, Britain seems poised for a referendum on EU membership as early as 2016. This will have long-term implications for the defence and security landscape at a time of exceptional instability. This is an opportune moment to reflect upon and consider Britain’s relationship with its continental European partners and government priorities moving forward.

During the recent UK general election campaign, Conservative leader David Cameron promised to hold a referendum on EU membership if re-elected as Prime Minister. Following Cameron’s surprise victory at the polls, the country now seems poised for a vote on the issue as early as 2016.[i] Leaders in the financial sector have expressed concern that such a referendum will pose a significant threat to Britain’s economic stability. Bank of England Governor, Mark Carney recently echoed these sentiments when he called for a ‘speedy resolution of the European question.’[ii] Brexit also poses equally great challenges for defence and security.

The United Kingdom has long had a complicated and problematic relationship with continental Europe. Over the centuries, Britain has relied on its position as an island nation in order to remain aloof from unnecessary continental entanglements and alliances. As a global superpower, the UK was able to draw upon its colonial possessions to help bolster its defences. During WWI and WWII, manpower and resources from the Dominion countries and colonies helped Britain to punch well above its weight. With the decline of empire, the UK has fostered strong political and military ties to the United States. However, Britain has never been able to remain wholly detached from its European neighbours nor can it afford to do so now.

The British Armed Forces are the smallest that they have been since the mid nineteenth century.[iii] The defence budget has also been subject to severe cuts. In light of the recent Conservative landslide, Professor Malcolm Chalmers of the Royal United Services Institute has predicted that the, ‘Ministry of Defence (MoD) might get a real terms increase in its total budget of up to 1 per cent per year over the next Spending Review period.’[iv] Be that as it may, defence spending is still set to drop below 2% of GDP over the next few years.[v] Britain’s failure to meet its NATO commitment has strained relations with the United States. Earlier this year, US Army Chief of Staff General Raymond Odierno expressed, ‘his concerns about the impact of UK defence cuts on the level of UK-US military cooperation.’[vi] In an interview with BBC Radio 4 in early 2014, ex-US defence secretary Robert Gates similarly commented that, ‘With the fairly substantial reductions in defence spending in Britain, what we’re finding is that it [the UK] won’t have full spectrum capabilities and the ability to be a full partner as they have been in the past.’[vii] These developments come at a time of exceptional instability, both within Europe and globally.

Since Russia’s intervention in Ukraine, the stability of Eastern Europe has come into question. The authors of SDSR 2010 did not predict that state on state conflict would pose a major threat to European security in the foreseeable future.[viii] However, British authorities have been forced to rethink these conclusions in light of Russia’s actions. In a recent report, the members of the House of Commons Defence Committee argued that, ‘For the first time, since the Second World War, a technologically advanced European power has expanded its own territory by force, rejecting international borders.’[ix] As spending declines elsewhere, the Russian government is also committed to investing heavily in the military with a projected defence budget of close to 100 billion dollars in 2016.[x] Fearing for their own security, the Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) have appealed to NATO for the deployment of a permanent contingent of troops to be based in the region.[xi] These demands come at a time when the UK already faces significant security threats such as foreign and domestic terrorism.

Moving forward, it seems more than likely the UK will become increasingly reliant upon a network of strong political and defensive relationships. Many of these alliances will include key European countries like France and Germany. In Rethinking defence to meet new threats, the House of Commons Defence Committee concluded that while, ‘the UK must build on its strong alliance with the United States,’ it is crucial that, ‘European NATO allies are operating at maximum effectiveness.’[xii] Consequently, many commentators have expressed anxiety about a possible British exit from the EU. On the eve of the British election, author and journalist Alex Preston contemplated such an eventuality. He speculated that Brexit could undermine existing intelligence sharing relationships between Britain and its European partners.[xiii] On the other hand, Eurosceptics have argued that leaving the EU would allow the UK to function more effectively and independently both financially and in terms of defence.[xiv]

The British political establishment and the wider public need to think carefully about the UK’s place in the world and how to redefine and re-establish an effective working relationship with Europe. With the growth of nationalistic feeling in both Scotland and England, this will undoubtedly be challenging.[xv] However, decisions regarding Europe are long overdue. For better or worse, there is no doubt that a UK referendum on the EU will have a lasting impact on both the European and global defence landscape.

 

[i] ‘Philip Hammond seeks fast settlement on EU,’ Telegraph (14 May 2015), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/eureferendum/11607163/Philip-Hammond-No-treaty-change-needed-for-EU-reform.html

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Tom Rutherford, ‘Defence personnel statistics,’ Social and General Statistics (26 Sept 2014).

[iv] Malcolm Chalmers, ‘Defence and the Election Outcome,’ RUSI Analysis (12 May 2015),

https://www.rusi.org/analysis/commentary/ref:C555209057B7E5/#.VVaEuYrF9fx

[v] House of Commons Defence Committee, Rethinking defence to meet new threats (London: Stationery Office, 24 Mar 2015), pp. 12-13.

[vi] Ibid., p. 18.

[vii] Robert Gates, as quoted in, ‘Military cuts mean “no US partnership” Robert Gates warns Britain,’ BBC News (16 Jan 2014), http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-25754870

[viii] House of Commons Defence Committee, Rethinking defence, p. 3.

[ix] Ibid., p. 13.

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Daniel McLaughlin, ‘Russia decries Baltic states’ plea for NATO brigade,’ Irish Times (14 May 2015), http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/europe/russia-decries-baltic-states-plea-for-nato-brigade-1.2212944.

[xii] House of Commons Defence Committee, Rethinking defence, p. 3.

[xiii] Alex Preston, ‘What would happen if Britain left the EU?’ Guardian (19 Apr 2015), http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/19/what-would-happen-if-britain-left-the-eu-consequences-of-exit

[xiv] Ibid.

[xv] Malcolm Chalmers, ‘Defence and the Election Outcome.’

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Charm to the front: some thoughts on public order policing

Fri, 22/05/2015 - 16:33

 

The days that followed the general election did not lack for frustrated emotion, with dissatisfaction across the political spectrum. That Saturday London’s streets played host to two significant events, in North London and Whitehall. Responding to StrifeBlog’s piece on the 9th May’s anti-austerity demonstration at the latter location, I would like to amplify the points raised regarding behaviour, particularly focusing the attention on the police and the role of theirs within the swirl of protest. Recent research on crowd behaviour and perceptions of police legitimacy suggest this is an area ripe for critical attention.

 

Protest is a fraught event. The passions which drive citizens to the streets in common voice are not to be trifled with. However, while the emotions of distress are an expected part of such events, my observations from 9th May solidified the conceptualization of the tactical relevance of another emotion, charm, and I would like to discuss here a place for it in British public order policing. It is not news to suggest that polite chat – if not outright charm – is a feature of British policing. If current research is correct, that characteristic is a significant strength against the landscape of policing practice, an asset at the strategic and tactical levels. Moving forward into a period of uncertain funding and even more uncertain political and security challenges, the need to effectively use that strength exceeds that which is merely good practice. While putting a premium on charm in public order situations might accord with the best of emerging scholarship on the subject, in fact these more critical issues may argue for its necessity.

It is first necessary to set the terms of public order policing. For the British police especially, the emotional context of protest places their role on a knife’s edge. On the one hand, there is the policing standpoint on protest. Whether any individual officer or force agrees with those passions, British policing adheres to the standard that the first objective of their efforts is to facilitate the right to protest. Before going further I should point out that I think that this is an excellent starting point for the police role in protest. On the other, hand, the “toe to toe” tactical approach means that they do so at closest proximity to the participants. That is, British public order policing is designed to operate in the face of society’s distress. The challenges of such an approach are significant and it is not unexpected that the police at times struggle to get the balance correct. Much work has been done within policing in the last several years to refine their implementation of the facilitative approach as part of their public order doctrine in response to official critique and public concern. HMIC’s reviews following the 2009 G-20 demonstrations focused on the relationship of that approach with the culture of British policing. Within that framework, and in support of facilitation at close proximity to the protest, increasing consideration is being given to how force, communications, appearance, and other markers of the policing approach to protest influence events and rights. In sum – and it is no small task – British police aim to facilitate protest within the intimate emotional space of the protesters while balancing their actions against a culture which relies upon public consent. Influencing all of this is a growing body of literature regarding the police role in crowd behaviour. The damaging correlation between police hostility and discord or disorder is becoming clear, whereas the banner of respect is linked to positive shaping of events. [1] Events at Whitehall offer an excellent perspective on the role of demeanour – of all involved but especially for the police on the frontlines – as it was a dominant theme of what I saw over the last two hours of the day’s events. Through that frame I would like to consider a few key points which were defined by the interaction of police and protester emotion.

To begin, the onset of the disorder sustains the focus on the interaction between police and protester across emotion and action. From the videos widely circulated online it is possible to form several impressions. Key among them was that whereas the police intention at the start was to facilitate the march decrying the politics of austerity that aim was derailed by events. A minor incident which should not but does often alter the course of events, the “snatch,” (4:05), was the immediate spark to the day’s extant tinder, unleashing the disorder which rightly or wrongly has characterized impressions of the event. In itself, the arrest did not merit the response it invited. But this is the nature of such events and large groups, that simmering passions await the least inspiration. It is the sort of phenomenon which led the United States Marine Corps to imagine the character of the Strategic Corporal. That is, under the right circumstances even minor tactical actions can have significant strategic and political effect. I do not suspect that the officers involved in the arrest intended to unleash the havoc which followed, but rather were simply focused on the task at hand. And what the video fails to show is the act which had led these officers to decide this individual needed to be apprehended at that moment.

Omitting negativity and judgement, it is worth consideration of the balance of value in taking such actions during protest. There is very obviously a trade-off in costs and risks for certain activities in public order policing. Where crowd perceptions of legitimacy and police action matter, especially with regard to their behaviour in the moment and the hair’s breadth difference between calm and disorder, how arrests are carried out is a matter for discussion, with minimum distress a necessary element of success.

But if the early afternoon’s events sustained the negative consequences of the relationship between police behaviour and crowd dynamics in protest, the evening offered a glimpse at the potential of the positive influence. Having spent the afternoon trapped in the office, listening wistfully to the sound of NPAS London circling nearby, when my day’s writing completed at six I made it to Whitehall for final act of the day’s drama ending at Westminster Bridge.

Things had gone to disorder earlier, but by this time in the day the mood had calmed considerably. Although many of the police were in public order kit at that point, this was not how the policing had begun the day. Despite the earlier disorder, there still remained on the streets officers in nothing more than their hi-viz jackets, stab vests and soft caps. Nevertheless, the tone along the lines was at least polite, if not friendly, most officers in helmets had the face shield up and were perfectly willing to engage members of the public. [2] I will admit that in support of my research I take full advantage of the opportunity this presents. But even some of the protesters were enthusiastic with their engagement, and these interactions of the police and protesters was instructive to watch. One exchange stands out. When challenged to confront what had happened there earlier in the day and whether what the police had done was right or fair, one officer smiled and replied “I don’t know, we came down from Walthamstow an hour ago.” The failed attempt to burden the officers with blame was poignant and defused somewhat the protester’s confrontation with the officer. It also was a moment to consider what sort of cognitive impression the day’s contrasting and similar activities would leave on some of the officers.

 

Protester chats with an officer.

 

After an hour or so, the decision was taken to end the protest in front of the MoD. I was made aware of this with a polite notification by one of the officers. Although tempers had moderated he did not expect the remaining protesters to take the news well. As I was stood in the path of the intended police movement, it was clear that members of the public wishing to do so would be allowed to pass around the police lines. The officer’s assessment of the temper of the crowd was not inaccurate, and in response to the effort to disperse the lingering crowds the police again had to contend with emotion. Meeting police instructions for the crowd to step back, the chants of “Fuck the Police” echoed down Whitehall. Finding myself behind the police line of march, as they began to walk the crowds west I was able to observe the process from this perspective. The struggle here was not only to move the protesters but to keep control over the metal barriers which had been deployed along the streets. Used by the protesters to confound police efforts to move them along, it was a mildly frantic effort to move the barriers to the rear. Of the many things which the public order leader on the street must consider in such moments, even when the disorder is minor, this is not likely to enter the mind of anyone save those with practical experience. This effort was handled by every officer present and possible, rank notwithstanding.

 

Following the police line.

 

Perhaps I followed a little too closely, because at one point, a rather flustered Chief Inspector turned and noticed I was right behind their lines. Finding that I was not a member of the press, she requested that move off to the side a bit. I am relentless about my research, but equally I do not wish to become part of the problem, so to the sidewalk I went. The view was just as good, if not quite as direct. From there I watched the last push to move the protesters towards Parliament Square. Not long after, with the remnants of the protest finally arrived at Westminster, the police quickly regrouped and dispersed them across the bridge.

Observing at close range, across a variety of interactions and emotions, the contours of British policing practice and scholarship on crowd psychology and public perceptions of legitimacy merged conceptually. Watching the exchanges between police and crowd, the strength of this culture of policing which provides ample space for individual diplomacy to shape events should be reckoned as a strength against the academic findings on legitimacy, compliance, and consent generally. [3] And it seems to me that public order policing specifically could harness the influence of this geniality. Without being flippant or unserious, it is worth considering what value there would be in the first line of action in public order policing was chat. Echoing the ancient Roman military principle of placing experience to the rear to shore up the resolve of less experienced troops, in this case we would call for charm to the front to minimize the friction between police and protesters, moderate the latter’s distress of the protesters and public, thus lessening the public order burden overall. The police position in close proximity with protesting crowds is a challenge, but it offers as well an opportunity. Arrayed as the face of protest policing in its first effort, chatters and charmers could do much to maintain the equanimity of those they confront. The most recent protest was not the first I had seen of the value of such efforts. During the Guy Fawkes demonstrations last November I stopped to watch a line of officers manage the flow of demonstrators. You cannot see it in the picture, but the officers have their visors up and are smiling [4] and talking to several of whom they are keeping from heading towards Westminster and Trafalgar Square. The effects were palpable. At the tactical level in the moment, although thwarted in their attempt to join the fray, the individuals were largely mollified to have at least an open “ear” to their sentiments and reasons for protest. More broadly, considering the terms of legitimacy, by treating these individuals with respect, explaining the police reasons for stopping their progress, and listening to their cause, these officers served the legitimacy and perception of policing.

 

Smiling officers chat with protesters.

 

Balancing the needs of protest and expression against those for order and safety has never been easy and seems only to be increasing in complexity. The British police will have to confront this, as well as the broader challenges to their relationships with communities and ability to work effectively as a function of that. Seemingly out of place within this world, it may be that charm is a necessary part of the public order kit.

 

 

Notes

1 See, eg, Lawrence Singer, “London Riots: Searching for a Stop,” Policing, V7, No. 1, pp 32-44.

2 The number of times I watched an officer ask politely several times for a protester to do something was remarkable. Nothing anyone was asked approached onerous, but the mood was simply to oppose.

3 See, eg, Andy Myhill and Paul Quinton, “It’s a fair cop? Police legitimacy, public cooperation and crime reduction,” NPIA, September 2011.

4 This accords with research on kit, as a reduction in force can signal positively to a protest crowd and facilitate communication. See, eg, Stephen Reicher, Clifford Stott, Patrick Cronin, and Otto Adang, “An integrated approach to crowd psychology and public order policing,” Policing, Vol 27, No. 4, 2004.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Colonel Panter-Downes: The Army Foot

Mon, 18/05/2015 - 11:33

Our Colonel returns this week to inspire the conversation. In this installment he considers the decline and fall of the foot inspection. Once a regular part of British Army leadership practice, he views its demise against the backdrop of the changes it represents for service and officership. As well as any soldier, the military historian is familiar with the practice, as well as the foot’s larger influence in war. The Romans built their empire upon the Legion’s march. And even in this age of high speed travel, the foot manages to retain its influence upon events. However, as a metaphor for the creeping technocracy within the armed forces, the changing terms of its care as a matter of military concern is illuminating. Read the post, consider the questions, join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW. — JSR 

 

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst issued us many things in our year long sojourn there. Some would prove invaluable (our copy of Sidney Jary’s book “18 Platoon”), some would prove tragic (our unfeasibly bulky purple polyester track suits) and some just muddled in between. In this latter category there sits a slim blue pamphlet that still haunts a box in my attic, “The Army Foot: Its Conditions and Cures”.

I do not think that I have ever had recourse to use said pamphlet although the subject is one of acute interest to most infantry officers, for the infantry foot in particular is both an ugly and indispensable object. I have however carried out an inordinate number of foot inspections. Sandhurst was very good at foot inspections, and feet were inspected after exercises and after road marches and this habit carried through to when I was a platoon commander. Feet inspections were the norm and the platoon commander carried them out. When I left my last command some seven years ago however, foot inspections were not the norm. Indeed when, after our first road march, we warmed down and I briefed my command team “Right – foot inspection! I’ll do the HQ you do your teams, let me know when you’re done!” I was met with incredulous looks by the assembled officers. Foot inspections it seems are no longer the norm in the British Army.

This passing of an era seems to me a great shame on a number of fronts. It also seems to me to reflect something of a gradual change in command ethos within the British Army. The reasons for this change are complex but ultimately boil down to two primary factors.  Primarily changes in the character of the society we are drawn from and whom we serve, exacerbated by the steady erosion of the British regimental system in successive defence reforms since 1990.

When I joined it seems to me that the leadership ethos was somewhat paternalistic in nature. As junior officers we were expected to care for our men and it was made clear to us that their problems were very much our problems. I advised on finances and relationships as well as courses and careers, the approach seemed almost Edwardian in character. Despite being a mere slip of a lad myself, my soldiers were referred to affectionately as “my boys”. Not only was I expected to know what was happening in their lives I was expected to be actively involved. I would attend court if they were up on charges (officers still do), write to the bank manager on their behalf if needed and consult (or console) on their marriage plans as required. If the leadership ethos was strongly paternalistic, the character of the unit and sub-unit was equally familial.

This familial character was reinforced by the nature of my battalion, a close knit county regiment with strong local and family links amongst both officers and men.  In my first platoon I found myself commanding one distant cousin, one school friend and two men from my village. People had grown up together and families had served together over generations. Not only did the regiment have a history and character, but it shared regimental families in both the Officers’ and Sergeants’ Messes; families who had grown up and then served alongside each other over the generations.

It is the case today that not only have the geographical and familial links been strained by successive eroding of the British regimental structure (which has been most acutely felt in the line infantry units), but also that the ethos of command has moved away from its former paternalistic nature. Partly this is as a result of legislative change (I am not qualified to give financial or relationship advice and therefore would be liable if I did so) and partly because society has changed; the Baby Boomers generation has given way to Generation X and now we in turn are ceding to the Millennials. Perhaps today’s soldiers see a clearer delineation of responsibilities than they did 20 years ago and what was appropriate then is no longer appropriate now? I sense that today junior officers still care for their men, but that perhaps their willingness and definitely their latitude to get actively involved in providing care is more limited than in my time.

Now barring National Guard and Reserve units US Army units have no geographical affiliations for recruiting, and so while there are a great many ‘Army families’ where generations have served in turn this is not necessarily expressed in unit character for Active Component units. Bearing this in mind there is not a direct read across from my experiences of the familial nature of the command care relationship to the US Army.  However US officers will have seen the changes over the years over what they used to do and what they do now, between what was appropriate and what is no longer appropriate.

So my questions for this week are:

What are the parameters of care to which a leader should adhere?

How has the practical application of leadership care changed since you joined and what does this say about your organisation and people?

When did you last do a foot inspection?

Despite the changing times, I remain a firm fan of foot inspections, not only on a pragmatic basis but as a tangible demonstration of care to those under command.  You can learn a lot about a man by how he cares for his feet and what state they are in, you can also learn a lot about a leader through the care and attention that he gives your feet.

 

 

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

UK Election 2015: Chaos, Disengagement and the Hunger Games

Thu, 30/04/2015 - 11:04

In 2010 I ran a series of short pieces on these pages about the General Election (and the image is from the 2010 result). Back through no popular demand at all… some thoughts.

This election will have four main head-lines on May 8th, and a big mess of two significant minorities to hack about trying to form a government:

1) The SNP wiped the floor with Labour in Scotland.

2) The LibDems melted down

3) UKIP were second in over 100 seats, but gained only 5 seats, and thus – ironically – have become the new LibDems…

4) Both the Conservatives and Labour can mathematically form a minority government, and that leaves the Queen with a somewhat large constitutional headache.

So, let’s start with Scotland. Lovely place, one day I will live there. Well, Nicola Sturgeon (leader of the Scottish Nationalists) was the stand-out winner of the televised debate of all seven main party leaders. Indeed, the people I watched it with (who all live in England, and aren’t known for socialist tendencies) all wanted to vote for her by the end of evening. This was partly because she sounded competent (‘knows what she’s doing’), and partly because didn’t seem as ‘male and smug’ as the other ones. So, on an unscientific poll in the Midlands, the leader of a party no-one could vote for, had a clear majority. In more scientific polls, she is set to lead (despite not standing for a Westminster seat herself) an absolute drubbing for Labour north of the border. For Labour’s chances of forming a majority government this is catastrophic. Well, it has ended the chance of a majority. For Jim Murphy (the Scottish Labour Party leader) this will be – if it comes about – a disaster, which is a shame because he is both a competent politician and by most accounts a decent man too. So, whilst the SNP has been making strides to dominate Scottish politics for a good number of years it is the catalysing effect of the Scottish independence referendum that is catapulting the party ever higher in the polls. The notion that the independence referendum was the end of the matter ‘for a generation’ seems fanciful. The mode of exit for the Scots seems painfully clear: the 2017 EU referendum provides them with the perfect opportunity to jump a Brexiting ship. Expect to see to Nicola Sturgeon looking very pleased on May 8th, and her former mentor Alex Salmond restored to Westminster and full of the joys of holding someone over a barrel.

The LibDems are having what is known in cricketing circles as ‘a total mare’. There appears to be nowhere in the land that they are currently safe – bar Eastleigh – according to an aggregator poll yesterday, and the lack of local support (their traditional strength) will be particularly concerning for them. The LibDems have – by dint of their internal constitution – always been very close to their membership, but they seemed to forget this during Coalition and frankly didn’t spend enough time saying how they had held back the Tories from doing whatever it is we assume they would have done if given free rein. And that’s the LibDems problem in a nutshell: what did they provide the Coalition, short of bodies to form a majority? If Clegg is lucky he’ll be offered a seat in the European Commission, a job he’d do fabulously well. As for those LibDem MPs that survive next Thursday, theirs might be a cosy and lonely existence. Back to the drawing board, and the sort of localism that saw them as ‘the’ party of local government for 20years.

UKIP and the irrepressible Farage will be disappointed on 8 May. They’ll be disappointed because – ironically -we don’t have a European system of voting. If we did, they’d be laughing. Nige would be all over the papers guzzling warm beer and basking in the joy of 1953 (cards on the table: as a europhile, I’m not a fan, but I do think he’s a nearly-brilliant politician). So, in line with the Ashcroft polling, I’m also happy to think that UKIP will come 2nd in over 100 constituencies, but fail to win outright in many. The act of coming second in a large number of seats (although they’ll feel like it’s a cup of sick) is actually a very strong result, that they’ll need to work hard, and more coherently, to build upon. For me, the really interesting point is who they are taking votes from: I had assumed years ago that they were the militant wing of the Conservative Party, but there’s good evidence that they’re taking working class Labour votes (which will see Tory MPs saved) and I’ve heard a number of LibDems in the midlands saying they’ve switched to UKIP too (which is interesting, when you compare the platforms). What Farage does very well, is tap into the concerns of actual voters. Not the issues that the mainstream think we ought to be bothered about, but what the ordinary voter is actually bothered about. That makes him a bit of a mystery to people.. well, like me. But after May 8, if he can actually build a party machine and match populism to policies that don’t get automatically shredded by the majority of the press, he’ll cause electoral chaos.

It’s been noticeable that defence and security have been almost totally missing from the election debates. There was half a day on trident, and the debate centred on 4 boats, 3 boats, no boats, and what is trident? But by lunchtime, it was as if all the parties had come together and agreed that trident and defence in general was a bad topic for all of them, and it was better not to talk about it. What I took from this is that defence is going to suffer further irksome cuts after the election no matter who wins, and none of them wish to point out the emperor has his fundamentals dangling in the breeze. We must surely be at the point where the next SDSR needs to have a strong element of public engagement – we are moving from full-spectrum to limited spectrum capabilities and the public are only just beginning to wake up to it. Miliband’s attempt to engage on foreign policy – at Chatham House – was met with howls and protests, and the modification of what went out from the Labour press office the night before rather indicated that the language had been loose. It would have made for a more interesting foreign policy debate if Miliband had gone for the strongest interpretation of what he said – the debate around interventionism and isolationism (a false dichotomy in my view) would have been worth having. But all the parties decided this was bad karma for them too. Even the debate on economics has swirled around, with Cameron’s job’s miracle not landing properly, nor Labour’s swipe at zero-hours jobs and food banks misfiring – you’d have to wonder what carnage Blair and Campbell would have caused with this.

So, on May 8th (and then for probably a month) we’ll witness the moving of the chairs as two credible minority governments vie to actually form the government. Who’d be the Queen in those circs: unenviable! Cameron has seemed – unfairly, so he keeps saying – disconnected and without gusto. But he’s done the job as a Chief Exec rather than a vision thing, whilst Miliband – in not setting fire to anything or falling over in public – has exceeded popular expectations. His brand of geek-immunity from social pressure allows him to rock up with Russell Brand and not be intimidated by the coolest kid in the playground, whilst meandering into a hen party and looking appropriately geeky. Weirdly, Miliband is becoming the Labour party’s secret weapon… six months ago, you’d have laughed to see it written.

This election of disengagement and the race to the deadheat of 33% makes me almost nostalgic for the crushing certainties of electoral domination of the 80s and early 00s. Almost….

 

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

4/29: When Casualties Come Home from War

Wed, 29/04/2015 - 11:59

When the casualty incident described in this piece occurred, it fell to me to tend to the unit’s “family.” Beyond the families directly affected, the rest experienced these events through my messages. They chronicle a small piece of what happens on the home-front when casualties come home. [1] These events unfold regularly in our midst, more so in the last decade of conflict, but most in the general public have no experience of this aspect of war; they should.

 

Reflecting upon the conflict and mayhem that has been unleashed in Iraq since the instigation of the military operations to end the regime of Saddam Hussein, there are many issues to confront the scholar. As a military historian, most fundamentally for me I never believed regime change in Iraq was a good idea. Breaking states should only be a strategy choice of last possible resort, and even then it is probably best avoided. But as the spouse of a Marine Officer my professional and intellectual opposition would be challenged by personal obligations.

I was not unfamiliar with this internal conflict between scholarly and real world obligations. In 2004, as a Fellow in their Summer Seminar in Military History, I watched the veterans among the West Point uniformed historians experiencing both cognitive dissonance as well as resonance as they confronted their intellectual material. I could tell that they were comparing their experiences with their scholarship, but I did not understand what that meant at the time. Years later, humbled by my own small experience, I have a sense of how they must have felt and thought. My hope is that this glimpse into the wider experience of war and conflict will offer a similar bit of enlightenment for others.

The vagaries of the personnel system meant that my former husband missed the first several years of OIF. He spent its first year “Stop-Moved” in Okinawa – a one year unaccompanied tour doubled at the commencement of hostilities in 2003. Then a B-Billet tour in Newport, RI, followed, because the alternation between line units and administrative jobs is relentless in the Marine Corps, no matter the state of conflict. At the first opportunity, after only two years in Newport, the Fleet Marine Force beckoned once again, specifically for Iraq. After a three months’ preparation, in January 2007, as a Major, he deployed to Iraq in command of a Military Training Team (MTT). As a training cadre the team was small, giving the families in support an intimacy and closeness that would colour the experience of the deployment. Furthermore, I was the unit Key Volunteer, which made me the point of contact between the unit/Marine Corps and the families of the serving Marines and Sailor. For the most part this meant I was responsible for providing official and correct information about the unit’s movements and activities to the families on a timely basis. Secondarily, as possible, I tried to offer some measure of additional information and support, as well as to coordinate any assistance the unit or the families might require. [2] It is the sort of responsibility that anyone not afflicted with terrific arrogance will feel that they have done inadequately.

By way of background on the context of the deployment, Fallujah in the first half of 2007 was roiling. At the time of the casualty event the Marines and the Iraqi Army battalion they were training had already seen significant and regular combat action. Their AOR, an area of the city known as the “Pizza Slice,” was particularly dangerous, with regular and daily insurgent activity. The Lieutenant Colonel commanding the Iraqi battalion was experienced and educated, having served during the Hussein regime. [3] Pragmatic and hopeful that a new start could be made for his country, he was a willing and able partner in the rebuilding of Iraq. The battalion and its training team would endure several months of sustained attacks until the insurgency broke – of its own stupidity and the civilian population’s shifted allegiance – early in the summer.

However, before that break occurred, a sniper ambush towards the end of a day’s activities took the lives of one of our Marines, and wounded two others. On the afternoon of 29 April, an element of the battalion and its trainers had been conducting a dismounted patrol of Marines and Iraqi soldiers with vehicles in support. As the last task of the patrol, they had stopped to conduct a search. With the units’ vehicles deployed along narrow and twisted streets, the dismounted elements cleared a building which had been identified as a potential insurgent base. Finding nothing in the building, as the Marines made their way to their vehicles the attack opened with precision sniper and general supporting fire.

Within short order, no more than five minutes of fighting, the three casualties were taken. The remaining 15 to 20 of minutes combat was fought as the dismounted Marines struggled to safely remove the fallen to the vehicles while those in the vehicles provided cover. Unable to safely extricate from the killing ground on their own, the timely arrival of the QRF (quick reaction force) ended the engagement. It was a close run thing, as the Marines engaged on the ground were running out of ammunition to continue their fight.

I remember the day clearly. I was probably munching bagels and driving home to Newport with my son and dog after a weekend visiting family in New York, while these events were occurring. (Yes, you do stop to note the surreal aspects of such moments.) Or maybe I was reading the Sunday New York Times, which had a story on the turning tide fighting the insurgents in Ramadi. Although the deployment was not easy, things were not terrible, and I had just returned from the annual conference for the Society for Military History conference and was energized for my research. [4] We arrived home, safe and sound. And completely oblivious.

It was later that night when the Major sent me the following email:

Do NOT say anything/tell anyone.  The worst happened.  Notifications are being made.  I’m still alive.

Brevity enhanced, rather than diminished, the impact of the news.

The identity of one of the casualties was the first detail I would receive regarding the incident. Shortly after the email arrived the phone rang. On the other end was the brother of the unit’s corpsman (Doc) who had been wounded the ambush. As awful as it was in its brevity I was now happy to have received the message. While there is no way to prepare for such things it was better not to be caught completely unaware. I spent hours on the phone with the brother that night, talking through what was happening to Doc and trying to get what information I could from the unit in Iraq. This effort was complicated by the fact that when casualty incidents happen a unit goes into communications lockdown – “River City” [5] – so as to avoid the unfortunate circumstance where rumour gets ahead of the official notification procedures of the service. Technically the Major should not have been in email contact with me. But as I was conferring with him on behalf of the family of a wounded service member, judgment and discretion were exercised to provide every support possible.

That night we settled the first round of issues and for the moment Doc’s situation was stable.

 

 

The next day’s shock was my notification of the Marine who had been killed in action.

When the liaison from the Marine unit in Camp Pendleton called and started talking me through the details of the event and what was now happening, my mind was whirring through the names and what the loss of each individual would mean. A widow. A child who would never know his father. A new mother left at loss for her spouse. A beloved child’s life ended. A fiancé who would never marry. When I heard the name of the Marine who had been killed, I was gutted.

Even as some scenarios had been averted, in the end there was no good answer to the question I had been considering, who had been lost?

I was informed of the dates and locations for the return of this fallen Marine and the funeral services. The family was from the East Coast, so I would attend. At the time we expected Doc to return to Bethesda on the same weekend, so my plan was to go there after the funeral. As it would turn out, this did not happen, his return to the States was delayed by complications from his wounds. To be honest, when he did return the experience of seeing him in the hospital in those early days was not easy and so the delay was for the best. I would have struggled mightily that weekend to confront both shocks.

It was for me to break the news to the rest of the families. Studying war and military history, casualty notifications are a common part of the narratives. To write one in reality is far more difficult than the words put to paper suggest. It is a humbling responsibility.

 

01 May 2007

All — If you have not heard from your family member in the last two days, it is because their communications have been shut down in light of recent events. I can tell you that the team was involved in a serious incident yesterday, with one critically wounded, and another, unfortunately, killed in action….I am not certain when the guys will be able to resume communications, but I hope it will be in the next day or two. I have been in contact with both families involved and have been assisting them in every way possible.

The team member wounded was Doc. His injuries were serious, but he was operated on and stabilized in Fallujah before being evacuated to Balad, where he underwent further surgery. He is in stable condition and improving, and is nearing the end of the period of critical concern. They expect to evacuate him to Germany, where he will stay for a couple/few days before being returned stateside for the recovery and recuperation process. There is good cause for (guarded) optimism that he will make a complete (or near complete) recovery.

As concerns the other casualty, I am very saddened to have to inform you all that the team has lost [a] Lieutenant. I know from various things the Major related to me that the Lieutenant was a superb officer. He was instrumental in setting the sort of moral, ethical and professional standard that was a credit to himself, the Marine Corps, and the mission to which he had been assigned. His family is, of course, suffering from this tragedy, but they are trying to hold onto these positive values, and the importance the Lieutenant himself placed in them, as a means to help them through this time. I will be in contact with them later in the week regarding the plans for the services. As they are located relatively near to me I will be in attendance.

Obviously both families are trying to come to grips with the enormity of the situations they face, and neither is able to put into words what they might need or appreciate in terms of support or assistance. After the passage of some time I will find out what you all can do for them or on their behalf. I would suggest that you all allow a few days before attempting to reach out to the [Lieutenant’s family]. I know that they are surrounded by friends and family right now, and do not lack for the support necessary to make it through this time….

If you would like, you may forward messages to me to pass along to the families as appropriate. I will keep you apprised of the situation with Doc, and will let you know details regarding the service for [the Lieutenant] if there is interest.

Unfortunately I do not yet have information regarding the third casualty [a member of the augmentees assigned to the team], but as I receive details I will pass those along as well.

I will tell the Major to have everyone send a message home when communications are restored.

I think that’s it for now. My best to all of you,

Jill

 

That week passed in a blur as I tried to come to grips with the events, continued assisting Doc’s family, and made plans to travel to Pennsylvania for the funeral. I would speak to the Lieutenant’s parents briefly during this period, as well as send them the following message.

 

02 May 2007

Please allow me to again express my deepest sympathies to you on the loss of [your son]. I knew early on that there had been a fatality, but the Major, of course, could not let me know directly who it had been. When the GySgt from I MEF contacted me to discuss what had happened, and informed me that it was your son, the news was crushing. Part of it had to do with the email exchange we had last week — his loss did not seem right given that we had been talking about him just so recently. Another part was due to the role I know he played on the team and with the Iraqis, and how much his influence would be missed by all of them. I’ve spent a fair bit of time staring at the picture of [the Major and your son] sharing a cigar, trying to come to grips with his loss. It seems that he is staring right at me, and I just can’t imagine that he is gone. It provides me with the smallest glimpse into the enormity of what you must be going through right now.

I have attached a copy of the message I sent to the team families regarding the events of last Sunday. All of the immediate family members, as well as a wide universe of people secondarily related to the team, stand ready to provide you with whatever you may want or need, and when the time is appropriate, I hope you will feel free to let me know how they might help you and/or honor [your son’s] memory. I do not know whether you wish to remain informed of the doings of the team, and it is certainly not something you need to concern yourself with now. However, given what I have learned about you from our brief conversations over the past few months, and what I know about the sort of man [your son] was, I have to assume that despite your terrible loss you still hold the team close to your hearts — perhaps even closer now than before. Please know that I stand ready to accommodate whatever your participation desires might be when the time is right.

I have been collecting notes for you from the team families and others, and will bring those that I have with me. I will continue to collect these as time goes by and pass them to you as appropriate. And, as previously mentioned, I will forward the memorial collection that the team puts together. I know that the Major is eager to provide you with anything you need communication and information-wise, and will move heaven and earth to contact you directly tomorrow. I hope that speaking to him will assist you in this terrible time.

Finally, it will be an honor to meet you both in person on Saturday and to properly express my own sentiments, as well as those of the Major, the other team members, and their families.

My warmest regards, Jill

 

I drove to Pennsylvania on that Friday for the services. It was a long, exhausting weekend, and on Monday I reported back to the rest of the families.

 

07 May 2007

Good morning all,

I am returned from the weekend’s journeys and wanted to pass along an update on Doc and tell you a little something of the services that were held in honour of the lieutenant.

Despite his continued recovery and improvement, Doc’s return to the states has been delayed for a few days/a week. He developed a very minor infection, so in an abundance of caution they have kept him in Germany to continue his recovery. He remains on a respirator and sedated, although I understand that this is to give him the rest his body needs to recover, and is not bad news. The parents travelled to Germany yesterday, arrived there this morning (EDT), and have been in to see their son. I spoke with the brother, who did not make the trip, and he let me know that, despite the difficulties associated with seeing their son in such condition, just being with him had provided them with a large measure of comfort. I am certain that Doc is aware, on some level, of their presence and that this will help him along as well. [The fiancée of one of the other Lieutenant’s] is stationed in Germany, and will do everything possible to get down to Landstuhl, while the parents are there, to visit with them and help, if necessary, in any way that she can. As soon as Doc returns to Bethesda I will make a trip down to see him. I will continue to keep you all as up to date as possible on his progress.

===

I would like to tell you as much about the services for [the Lieutenant] as possible. I hope I can do justice to the event, though I will admit that parts of it exceeded my comprehension at times, both in terms of the scale of support and love that was in evidence from the family and the local community, as well as in the magnitude of the effect that [he] clearly had on the wide universe of people who knew him.

Unfortunately, I was unable to make it to PA for the services marking his return home. However, I am attaching a link to the video of the event, so that you might share in it somewhat….

The services on Saturday began with the viewing. I will admit that I had a great deal of difficulty with that part, as I waited and was thinking of the events, and I must express how grateful I was to have the [liaison officer] who had been sent by the Advisory Training Group in Pendleton there with me — he went above and beyond to support and help me. As soon as I was introduced to [the Lieutenant’s parents], as well as [his] sister and her husband, they embraced me as family. I cannot tell you how humbled I was at their graciousness, at their thoughts for me during this incredibly difficult time for them. It is easy to understand how [the Lieutenant] became the man of character that he did given the qualities of the family in which he was raised.

I took this last moment with [the Lieutenant] to offer the farewells of his teammates, as well as those of the families who love and support the team. I let him know that Doc and the other Marine wounded were doing well and would recover from their injuries with few if any ill-effects. I told him that this was not how I had wanted to see him again — I had wanted to have the team to our house when they returned to Pendleton for a big dinner and some fun to celebrate their homecoming. I am certain, however, that he will be with us in spirit as we get together to mark the end of the deployment. I made certain that he knew that we would take care of the team during the second half of the deployment. I also assured him that we would also see to it that his family did not lack for the love and support we could provide them to help them through this very difficult time.

As the viewing period came to a close and we prepared to move to the Church for the services, more evidence of the magnitude of the event was in evidence. The legion of vehicles, bedecked in the flags of the Marine Corps and the Stars and Stripes was awe inspiring. As we made our way through the town it seemed that every person there was out on the streets to salute their fallen neighbor and show their support for the family. The cherry blossoms were in full bloom, the town a rare beauty of old and stately homes, there were American flags everywhere. At first I felt inappropriate for taking account of the beauty, but as I thought on it more, I realized that it was as it should be, that a force beyond our comprehension had intervened to provide a day and a scene worthy of the event and the people involved. [The Lieutenant] had clearly reported to his next duty station — in the parlance of the Marine Corps and the idea that fallen Marines guard the streets of heaven — and was already proving to be outstanding in his job and had made certain that all was taken care of.

The services held at the Church were a tribute to the character, faith, and personality of the Lieutenant. We were given glimpses into the parts of his life that reflected upon the totality of the man. There were moments of laughter, as humorous stories were related about him. There were moments of reverence, as the depths of his personality were revealed. There were moments of profound sadness as the reality of what had been lost became abundantly clear. The family and friends chosen to speak on his behalf were eloquent, offering such meaningful words of praise and insight into the life of someone who had clearly made a difference at every moment he had on this earth. There was not a person in the Church who was not touched by their offerings. I intend to get copies of these remarks so that I can send them to the team back in Fallujah, and I will try to provide them to you all as soon as possible.

In order to convey to you the scope of the procession to the cemetery, let me tell you that I have, on many occasions, followed the exact same route as I travelled from my home in New Jersey to Washington, DC. It is a very busy route that is filled with businesses and often congested with traffic. To imagine the efforts that went into allowing the free procession that must have stretched for several miles is a testament of the lengths to which the local authorities went to show their support of the family and to pay their respects to the Lieutenant. It seemed that every local fire and police department was out to pay their respects. At one point we passed under the arch of crossed ladders from two fire trucks — an image I will never forget. Again, scores and hundreds of people lined the route to pay their respects. As I looked upon the people in cars who were stopped to provide for the free passage of the procession I am certain that I could see their profound respect for what they were witnessing.

The burial ceremony was simple, and yet filled with all of the honours and traditions that the Marine Corps holds dear. There was a piper playing in the background as we arrived. We shared in the playing of Taps, by a lone bugler off in the distance, and the rifle salute. The detail of Marines there to assist in the ceremony fulfilled their duty with all of the honor and respect they knew was due to a fallen comrade. As I took a moment to thank them afterwards for their service, on behalf of the team back in Fallujah and their families, they offered with great humility and true emotion that they could think of nothing they would rather do. The ceremony ended with the bestowal of flowers upon the casket.

At the end of the long day, one filled with many tears and sad thoughts on such a tragic loss, the family and friends gathered at the [family] home to share a brief moment of lightness and perhaps a little joy, as they reflected upon all of the good things associated with [the lieutenant] and his life, the funny stories that made up the texture and fabric of his character, and the things that would be missed in his absence. I had the opportunity to speak with several of his friends, and they told me a little of the person he had been in his youth, and the effect that he had had on their lives. I also talked with a Marine, recently returned from Fallujah, who had served as part of the augment in personnel the team had received near the beginning of the deployment….Although he indicated that things were challenging for the team, and at times downright rough, that they were all doing very well, their spirits were as high as possible, and were comforted and deeply appreciative of all the support the families had provided.

To close, I would like to relate to you all that, as I spoke with [the lieutenant’s father] before leaving, he made certain that I know that the family remained committed to the team and wished to remain a part of our group until the end of this deployment — a sentiment echoed by every member of the family with whom I spoke. Despite having an inkling that this would be the case, I was still amazed at what it said about them that they maintained the willingness to partake of something that would, on many levels, remind them in such stark terms of their loss and pain….And, as they face the difficult of simply living with the new reality, I am certain that there is nothing the rest of us won’t do to help them out….

My best to all of you,

Jill

 

The funeral was closure for only one part of the event. The long and often painful recovery of the wounded personnel was the next challenge to face.

Returning to the Doc, initial optimism for his recovery would be eroded over the next several weeks as his body struggled to cope with the terrible trauma to which it had been subjected. However, just after the funeral these difficulties were in the future and at that moment we celebrated the good news that he would be returning to the States.

 

09 May 2007

It is my distinct pleasure to pass along some good news. This is the latest report from [our family member in Germany]:

//I went back down to Landstuhl today to see Doc one last time before they fly him back to the states and I am happy to announce that his is fully alert and breathing on his own. He looked really good, considering what he has just gone through. His parents were not there so I stayed and talked to him for a little while. Even though he is breathing on his own they still have the ventilator hooked up for supplemental oxygen only so he isn’t able to talk yet. He mouths words when he can but mostly writes everything down. It was good to see he has a sense of humor and one of the first things he asked about was the rest of the team. He told me he remembers everything about their encounter but he asked who died and if [my fiancé] got shot. For a brief moment I started tearing up on him as I had to tell him about the Lieutenant and [my fiancé’s] grazing. He wants me to tell the guys that he is doing well but he’s not coming back! I had to chuckle at that after he wrote it. I know you will tell the Major so he can pass it on to the others. I’m sure he will be doing even better by the time he gets to [Bethesda] and hopefully you will be able to make it down to visit. I just wanted to pass along this information so you could spread the good news. Well, I must get started on my school work, talk to you later.//

I will let you all know when he arrives in Bethesda and how to contact him there.

Best, Jill

 

During all this time I had known there was a third casualty. However, as he and a dozen or so other Marines from his unit had been attached to the team after deploying to Iraq I did not have any information on them. Finally, in the second week after the event I was able to track him down.

 

09 May 2007

Hello all,

So, I finally made contact with the other Marine (a Lance Corporal) wounded during the incident of 29 April. He is back in the states, recovering at [the hospital]. His direct dial phone number is…, I’d say give him a call if you want — I did, and he seemed to enjoy the contact. He is doing pretty well, all things considered, able to get up and move around, and his spirits seem appropriately high — relative to what has happened to him, of course. He’s not able to eat anything more than toast and liquids, so there is no need to send him food care packages. However, he picked up something of a Sudoku habit over in Iraq, and so would enjoy books of those, as well as magazines along the lines of National Geographic, Time, etc. Cards and flowers would also be welcome. (I checked, and he sheepishly said that flowers would be good.) He will be [at the hospital] for about two weeks, so take that into account when sending anything….I would assume that you can send things to him care of the hospital, but it might be worth making a call to double-check the addressing procedures.

As mentioned in the previous update on Doc, he is conscious, alert, and cracking jokes, albeit in writing. He will probably be flying back tomorrow – I will receive word when his departure is confirmed. For the purposes of sending things to him (same magazines as above, cards, and flowers), I would assume that delivery for Monday is a safe bet. I will try to get down there for Monday to visit with Doc and his family.

I think that’s it for now. Feel free to contact me if you have any questions.

All my best,
Jill

 

When the Doc finally arrived to Bethesda Naval Hospital in mid-May I flew to DC to visit with him and his family. I had, by this time, spent quite a lot of time on the phone and emailing them. The visit was more difficult than I let on in the message below. I had last seen him hale and hearty on the eve of the deployment. His wounds had transformed him utterly. And the strain upon his parents was, as a parent myself, almost too difficult to bear. As well, at the end of this message to the families, there is the reminder of the toll the losses had on the rest of the team.

 

21 May 2007

All,

I hope this finds you all doing well. My apologies for the time between postings, I didn’t even realize the time had passed — deployment brain, I suppose. However, I do have quite a bit of information to pass along.

On Doc – I travelled to Bethesda on Friday to visit with the Doc and his family. It was a tremendous pleasure to finally meet the family after the weeks of phone contact. I can’t express how valuable it was to me to have a chance to talk with Doc, about the team, about what happened, and so forth, both with him and  his family, and [with him alone] for the few moments we had while they were having dinner. As for his medical condition, considering where he started in this, he is doing remarkably well. There are still medical issues to deal with, and he remains in significant discomfort, but all of the medical personnel remain really pleased with his progress and entirely optimistic about his recovery. I would suggest that his biggest “problem” right now is the loss he is feeling at being separated from the team. Because of the small size of the original MTT (and even with the augments the team retains its “small unit/big family” feel), and how close they got with one another, separation from the team must be very difficult. I also suspect that, although he had worked with Marines before, this was the first time the Doc had been fully integrated into a unit – if we stick with the family metaphor, I suppose I would describe it as the difference between being a favorite cousin and being a brother. I have passed this impression along to the Major and he will make sure that Doc gets a call from someone on the team on a fairly regular basis. If you are searching for something to do for him I think that contact — mail, visits (to the extent that they are geographically feasible), or phone calls — would mean the world to him.

On the Lance Corporal: [He] has made remarkable progress. Rather than the two weeks he thought he would spend in the hospital at LeJeune, he was released to home care here in Rhode Island last weekend. On Wednesday we got together for coffee at his favorite local place…, a lovely spot right on the water — of course we remarked on how the locale could not possibly be more different from where he had just come. It was great to talk to someone who had just been with the team. Although he was a recent augment to the MTT, he had already gotten quite attached to it, and is very disappointed that he has lost the opportunity to continue to work with them. This weekend he suffered a minor setback…and was checked into the Newport Hospital. When I visited with him on Saturday he was waiting on a friend to bring him some food and griping about the hospital, so he is clearly doing quite well. I will check in with him today and continue to visit with him as long as we are here in Newport.

The Team: I had a letter from the Major this weekend that described how the team was coping with recent events. I’ll let his words tell their story — “It’s the day after our memorial service for [the Lieutenant]. I do feel like it provided some closure for us about all of the losses we took. The last week reminded me of a portion of one of the wolf shows we’ve watched. I recall the part where one wolf has died and there is no play in the pack for almost two weeks. It’s been like that around here since April 29th. Everyone still moved about their business but the smiles and joking around were gone. Shortly after the memorial, once we were back home I heard laughing in the other room. One of the new guys had done something dumb, I don’t even know what it was, but the guys were teasing him mercilessly. I knew then that we were moving along.”

 

Doc’s medical condition took a turn for the worse in the following weeks. The reality of the physical trauma from his wounds was more serious than initially expected. As well, the suffering of his family, of watching him in pain, of not knowing what would happen, was tremendous.

 

02 June 2007

Hello all,

I called down to Bethesda today — I had sent a package (cake and brownies, and a few other items), and I wanted to check on whether it had arrived. I had expected to have a nice little chat with Doc and his family. Unfortunately, in the last few days there have been complications with his condition. He has had a fever, is on a feeding tube, and is sleeping a fair bit. I neither want to be excessively morose and pessimistic, nor do I want to give the impression that this is insignificant. The fact of the matter is that his original injuries were extensive and serious, and the process of recovery is difficult (if not something just shy of miraculous). As for me, I refuse to believe that we have come so far in this not to have a good outcome. I spent a fair bit of time speaking with his mother, and while she is worried (she’s his mother, after all), she remains nothing but steadfast in her certitude that things will resolve themselves in a positive fashion, full stop.

I have let the Major know the situation….

Finally, I am certain that this will wear heavily on the guys, so reach out to them as well.

My best to you all,

Jill

 

They would continue in the vein through June, and it was only by July that the certainty of his recovery was a comfortable fact.

The Lance Corporal, though the least seriously wounded, struggled with his return home. Late one night he called me, in distress. He had gone out with friends and found civilian obliviousness a crushing contrast to his military and deployed experience. I knew the Lieutenant with whom he had served, so I wrote this message to him in Fallujah.

 

13 June 2007

Hello,

I hope this finds you doing well… or, well enough for a guy doing duty at “the Rock”. I suppose it would be terribly mean of me to tell you about the brilliantly mild spring we’re enjoying here in Newport — I don’t think we’ve gotten over 70 yet, and right now it’s almost chilly! Well, the weather in Pendleton should be nice for your return, so you have that to look forward to.

 Seriously, though, I wanted to let you know that [your Lance Corporal is] having a bit of a hard time being away from the unit. He called me just a little while ago, needing to talk to someone who had some sort of a clue — he’s feeling a bit guilty for not being there for you guys, and is generally pissed at the run of the mill selfish civilians. Anyway, if you can keep after him, giving him a call now and then, I think it would be good. If you could get [his buddy] to call, that would be good too. I’ll do what I can, but the Major’s wife is not quite the same thing as a fellow Marine.

Oh, and I had a good laugh over the ruckus my having him sit in the Major’s seat for dinner has caused. You guys are relentless!

Sorry to hear that you missed the birthday party… I hope you’ve given the Major a hard time about it!….

Best, Jill

 

I would continue to have the Lance Corporal to dinner throughout that spring, to include a birthday dinner. He tried to be annoyed that I had informed the team of his struggles with having been taken from them and sent home, but I have the distinct impression that was only for show.

Only gathered and stood up for the deployment, at the end the remaining members of the unit dispersed upon their return to Camp Pendleton back to their home units. [6] By that time Doc and the Lance Corporal were well on their paths to recovery. But the events and losses of that day in April will stay with them and their families always.

At the beginning of this piece I suggested that more people “should” be aware of this facet of war. Reflecting with the humility such events demand, I might correct that now to say that they deserve to know.

 

Notes:

[1] To give a sense of the significance of the event for the unit and the families, the core unit lost two of its original 11 members. The third casualty was from the ranks of the augmentees the unit received in country.

[2] In the first months of the deployment there was an issue with feeding. Ironic given that subsistence and logistics are the subjects of my dissertation. Essentially the FOB system could not serve them in their location, they could not get to the FOB regularly and the unit was not stood up with organic feeding capabilities. Putting this information out to the families and friends we more than compensated for the deficiencies with a deluge of care packages. A modern iteration of the Berlin Airlift. After about 3 months of ideas that did not work, the Marine command in Fallujah sent a messman from another unit to cook them one hot meal a day. I liked this old school solution.

[3] He was clear on his professionalism, emblematic in that he was field grade professional military education in the UK, and that although he had been wounded by Marines in Desert Storm he dismissed that as the cost of war and worked quite successfully with the training team and Marine units assigned to Fallujah.

[4] Ironically, I recall that weekend being particularly aggrieved to have to listen to a retired General opine – incorrectly, in my opinion and experience – on what affected the morale of military families. I may have had an exuberant conversation or two with colleagues at the conference about what general officers know of the home-front experience – less than most expect – and I still maintain that position.

[5] I have tried and failed to find an authoritative explanation for this term.

[6] Several months later more than half of them would volunteer to join another MTT deployment with the Major.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

CCLKOW: The 2% Doctrine

Mon, 20/04/2015 - 12:14

Dr. Hugo Rosemont is Assistant Director of the Centre for Defence Studies at King’s College, London.

This week Kings of War and CCLKOW are happy to introduce a new author to the audience and participants, with Dr. Hugo Rosemont discussing British security policy, budgets and priorities as a key part of the impending General Election. Marking something of a departure from the usual, in this case our conceptualization expands beyond defence to consider the implications for policing as well as other facets of the security machine. Although the most obvious nexus lately among these worlds is in the unfolding stories of citizens leaving to join foreign extremists, the wider universe of human and contraband smuggling, money laundering, cyber crime and other transnational “crim-sec” activity is demolishing the neat sense of separation between these state functions which had arisen under modern administrative practices. While it is folly to redefine every problem according to a security framework, it is equally dangerous to ignore the relationship among these sectors and their influence upon the broad terms of security because of bureaucratic boundaries. In governmental policy, I think Hugo is correct to identify the absence of more holistic thinking and approaches as a serious gap in thinking on security. And although the focus is, at the moment, upon the United Kingdom, with an election impending in the US next year these issues will resonate as well. So, enjoy the article, give a thought to the questions, and join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW. — Jill S. Russell  

 

Whilst some people might look at the treatment of foreign policy, defence and security issues during the 2015 UK General Election campaign as a farce, is it not now becoming something much more akin to a tragedy? Several commentators have rightly pointed out (for example, here and here) that, with the exception of only a few issues, these topics have not featured prominently during the campaign. This is disappointing for a few reasons.

First, where it has taken place, debate in these areas has focused almost exclusively on the status of the UK political parties’ varying (non?) commitment to allocate 2% of UK GDP to defence expenditure, in line with the country’s stance on the associated NATO guideline, with a sprinkling of discussion emerging more recently on the national security credentials of party leaders, and on the prospects for renewing the country’s nuclear weapons capability. Most notably, the Prime Minister received a high profile grilling on the first issue in a BBC leadership interview last week – his performance was subsequently critiqued by many analysts, including the editor of The Spectator.

The 2% question is a critical issue and it is important that both politicians and public opinion are flushed out in particular around their level of commitment to the UK meeting the NATO guideline (full disclosure: the present author shares the belief of many people – including the 33 Members of Parliament to have signed an Early Day Motion on the issue – that the next Government should commit itself to the NATO figure). But the current, understandable emphasis on this matter is now beginning to do us all a disservice because it leaves little room for consideration of the parties’ approaches to other national security issues. In particular, it is striking how little contemplation there has been to date around some of the more eye-catching security policy ideas to have been proposed in the parties’ manifestos, and indeed on their relative silence towards some of the most urgent issues. With respect to the former, for example, why has there not been a deeper level of interest or more mainstream media attention towards such issues as:

– The Conservatives’ plan to ‘hold’ a National Security Strategy later this year

– Labour’s proposal to abolish elected Police and Crime Commissioners

– The Lib Dems’ belief that intervention is justified by a legal ‘and/or’ humanitarian case

– UKIP’s proposal to establish a new Director of National Intelligence for the UK

– The Scottish National Party’s idea that nuclear weapons are morally offensive

Second, whilst opinion will be likely to split on whether any or all of these ideas are good, bad, or even ugly, unfortunately there is an even bigger problem. It is the apparent lack of detail (consideration?) from the parties on how under their leadership – or as a result of their involvement – the next UK Government would approach such serious current issues as winning the battle of ideas underpinning the radicalization of British ‘foreign fighters’ inclined to travel to Iraq and Syria, and notably in respect of other ongoing crises in, for example, Yemen, Ukraine and Libya. Additionally, a serious connection has seemingly not yet been made by any of the leading contenders in respect of how they propose to handle what Professor Vernon Bogdanor calls ‘The Crisis of the Constitution’ and the impact that policy in this area might have on national security – including the integrity of the country, and its long-term economic prospects. Judging by the manifestos, there also appears to be an ongoing failure on the part of all parties to develop creative solutions for engaging the private sector in addressing many of the most complicated issues the UK faces, upon whom it now depends in numerous areas of national security.

Third, it is concerning that more attention has not been paid in the pre-election discussions to how the next Government should develop its overall approach to national security considered in the wider sense. In other recent election campaigns, most notably in 2010, UK voters were spoilt for choice in being provided with detailed and creative new thinking from the parties (should they want it) around how policies, structures and processes would be developed and implemented by way of a genuinely ‘joined-up’ approach to national security. There have been few such discussions this time but, happily, Charlie Edwards (the author of National Security for the Twenty-First Century, an important pamphlet that originally advanced the need for a ‘holistic’ UK national security strategy) and Calum Jeffray of the Royal United Services Institute have recently co-authored an excellent new paper that adopts such a broad perspective with its analysis on the future for research and development for security and intelligence purposes. It must be hoped that this prompts the UK security and political community into again considering alongside defence the importance of what the coalition Government has called ‘wider security’ issues. For now, it is worrying that, with the possible exception of some attention to limited aspects of police reform and the future powers for monitoring digital communications, deeper discussion on non-military security issues has been largely absent from this campaign to date.

There is clearly very limited time now before 7th May, so the emergence of a renewed emphasis on security issues might be difficult to achieve. It also has to be recognized that, in contrast to high profile proposals on domestic priorities such as health and education, it has often be observed that policies on defence, security and foreign affairs are simply not the same kind of ‘vote winners’. But a case can also be made that two straightforward changes in approach would help to improve the level and quality of the discussions. Firstly, in parallel to any ongoing scrutiny of their policies on defence, the parties could be encouraged (if not pressured) by national security journalists, academics, and any other interested parties, to clarify whether (and how specifically) they would propose to work with partners to develop and fund their approaches to non-military security risks such as terrorism, organized crime and cyber insecurity, at home and overseas. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly at this stage, all those with an interest or voice in the current UK defence funding debate should consider resisting the temptation to add further fuel to the fire on the 2% issue, as important and tempting as it is, or at least contemplate raising in the debate the merits (and importance) of discussing other proposals and obvious (often non-military) security priorities facing the UK.

The reality is that we now have a good idea of where the parties stand on the 2% defence spending issue, however satisfactory or unsatisfactory positions on this matter may be seen to be. Clearly this will need to be revisited after the Election but, in the meantime, it is imperative that answers are also now sought on how the parties would approach other pressing security concerns, including in respect of how (if?) non-military security risks would be genuinely considered in any Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) process held under their watch.

It is against this backdrop that it is hoped that the following questions will help to stimulate some more varied discussion on the future shape of UK defence and security policy in the remaining few weeks of the 2015 General Election:

 

1 How useful is the 2% NATO guideline as a measure of UK national security capability?

2 How much should the next Government spend on other security capabilities (e.g. cyber, counter-terrorism policing, intelligence etc.)?

3 What ‘security’ issues should/shouldn’t be covered in the 2015 SDSR?

Join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Birth Pangs of a New Order, Volume Whatever

Thu, 26/03/2015 - 12:17

So, to re-cap the past week or so: the two-state solution is (almost) dead (again) after Bibi’s victory in the Israeli elections, the Americans came off the sidelines in Iraq with airstrikes in support of an offensive to re-take Tikrit from ISIS, Yemen’s President has reportedly fled the country and Saudi Arabia has now launched airstrikes against the Houthi rebels, Syria has dismantled 3 chemical weapons sites, Syria stands accused of continuing to use Chlorine weapons, Canada announced that it won’t bother to ask the Syrian government before attacking ISIS, oh and nine British citizens have reportedly entered Syria to work as medics in IS hospitals.

Spot the odd one out. That didn’t stop the nine medics making the front pages, though.

What is the British government to do about British citizens that are willing to travel to Syria and support ISIS? The Guardian called this “a test for British policy” and I agree, but it is a general policy problem that any state whose citizens get involved in irregular conflicts will have to face. I had a good debate on Twitter with Shashank Joshi regarding his argument that this constituted “material support” for terrorism, although the question he was asked was slightly different to its presentation. As I see it, the problem here is that two norms are in direct conflict with one another: the idea that the British citizens shouldn’t support ISIS, and the humanitarian impulse to save lives.

The key problem with any assessment is the same as most arguments about foreign fighters: we don’t really know what they’re up to except via scraps of information and rumours spread via twitter/instagram/the internet. As I see it, however, there are three ways that they could be involved (as medics): as a standard fighter with some medical expertise, as a dedicated medic working in a battlefield role, as a medic working in a hospital or similar facility. The first case is the easiest – even under international humanitarian law medical personnel can carry a light weapon for personal protection but lose the protection of their status if they act like standard personnel. The second is perhaps the trickiest issue. A battlefield medic would be providing material support, but at the same time, although medical personnel are integral to the conduct of military operations, they are commonly protected from attack precisely because international humanitarian law seeks to preserve the ability for medical personnel to tend to the sick and wounded while fighting rages. Even though debate rages about what constitutes “direct participation in hostilities” in non-international armed conflicts, this concept doesn’t include medical aid. Fundamentally, in international law there isn’t anything to prevent a person from pulling wounded people from a battlefield or tending to their wounds.

There is little doubt in my mind that the British government could figure out an argument for making it illegal to go to Syria and provide medical support for ISIS, even though this will be fundamentally a British law for British citizens. The question is, do we want to be seen to criminalise the humanitarian impulse? Will nine medical students really make much of a difference? In terms of narrative it seems a needless own-goal. If these students did go to Syria to heal people instead of kill them, the best thing the British government could do is ignore them and focus on something more important. Throw a dart at a map of the middle east, and it’ll probably land on something that should be a priority.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

A Crisis in Confidence: Redefining Veterans’ Rights for a New Generation

Mon, 23/03/2015 - 10:00

Welcome to this week’s CCLKOW discussion piece. This time, we are looking at the challenges that ex-servicemen and women face in seeking compensation for a disability, illness etc. Over the past few years, Veterans Affairs Canada has been severely criticized for failing to process claims efficiently and the closure of key offices. Legislative changes have also received widespread disapproval. However, these problems are not unique to Canada. Internationally, veterans are in the midst of redefining their relationship with the state. This process will have important implications for both the present generation of veterans and their successors in uniform. Read the piece and join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW.

There is a crisis in veterans’ affairs. Over the past twelve months alone, Veterans Affairs Canada (VAC) has come under fire for everything from failing to process disability claims promptly to the closure of nine out of thirty two offices across the country. Late last year, revelations also emerged that the department has returned nearly $1.13 billion in unspent funds to the treasury since 2006.[i] Moreover, the federal government is currently facing a class action lawsuit in connection to the New Veterans Charter (NVC). Passed in 2005, the NVC replaced existing pensions legislation. Originally praised as, ‘the most sweeping change to Veterans’ services and benefits in the past 60 years,’ it has been extensively criticized since it first came into effect.[ii] Currently in settlement talks with the government, the plaintiffs in the Equitas case claim that the NVC denies veterans access to the same level of compensation as they were entitled to under the old Pensions Act and does not meet the standards set in civil court for, ‘accidents or personal injury.’[iii] In addition, they contend that this is unconstitutional and the NVC should be repealed.

In the wake of continued turmoil, Julian Fantino was dismissed as Minister of Veterans’ Affairs earlier this year. Air force veteran and fellow Conservative MP, Erin O’Toole, replaced him. O’Toole’s appointment has been followed by a series of announcements regarding improvements in compensation for reservists and severely disabled veterans.[iv] Despite these developments, both O’Toole and Prime Minister Stephen Harper face an uphill battle. With a federal election looming, Mr. Harper is under significant pressure to address this issue. Continued problems in veterans’ affairs would reflect poorly on his government and provide his political opponents with ammunition.

Historically, the relationship between government and veterans has often proved problematic. By its very nature, the pension system is ‘adversarial.’[v] Governments have to balance the needs of veterans with the limitations of public spending. Given this consideration, pension/compensation systems have been designed with an ethos of independence and self-sufficiency in mind. Throughout the twentieth century, benefits and allowances have evolved to help rehabilitate ex-servicemen and women and assist them in rejoining the civilian workforce. Millions in Canada, the United States and other countries like the United Kingdom have benefited from legislation that grants veterans access to education, vocational training and financial assistance.[vi] However, officials have also struggled to define who should be considered a veteran in the first place and to what rights they should be entitled as a result of military service. Measuring disability has also proven exceptionally difficult. This is particularly troublesome when it comes to mental health problems, which are not directly or easily quantifiable.[vii] As a result, applying for a pension can be an infuriating process. Generations of veterans have encountered a labyrinthine bureaucracy that can be impossible to successfully navigate without assistance. Individual experiences have varied widely depending upon the nature of the veterans’ disability and the pensions’ officials that he or she encounters.

Since the first deployment of troops to Afghanistan in 2001, the Canadian public has become increasingly cognizant of the role that military personnel play and the health risks that they can run in the execution of their duty. Over the past fifteen years, the federal government has significantly revised pensions legislation and attempted to clarify the relationship between soldier and state. When the New Veterans Charter was first brought before the House of Commons in 2005, it received unanimous cross party support. At the time, Senator Roméo Dallaire described the legislation as, ‘a new social contract between the people of Canada and the new generation of veterans of the Canadian Forces.’[viii] However, the NVC has fallen well short of expectations and the government’s relationship with veterans has been damaged by recent events. There is a clear gap between what legislation is intended to do and the reality of how Veterans Affairs operates on a day-to-day basis. While many civil servants and politicians are undoubtedly well intentioned, waiting times remain excessive and the system is overly complex. Physically and mentally disabled veterans who require medical attention are poorly equipped to negotiate these obstacles.

Canadian veterans are not alone in their struggle. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is currently facing its own crisis in connection to the deliberate mismanagement and manipulation of hospital wait lists.[ix] In response, President Barack Obama recently announced the formation of an advisory group, ‘made up of public officials and leaders in the private sector,’ to help improve services.[x] Furthermore, media reports in the UK suggest that veterans still face an arduous process when applying for financial compensation.[xi] Veterans’ groups have estimated that it can take an average of over 200 working days in order to process a claim. While the MoD disputes this, officials do admit that there have been delays.[xii] They argue that these problems are largely the result of a rising number of claims and reduced staffing levels. Figures released last year, ‘show there were 36,000 new compensation claims for those injured, disabled or bereaved through service in 2013-14-an increase of around 16% from 2010-11.’[xiii] The government also contends that the 2010 Boyce review of the Armed Forces Compensation Scheme had, ‘diverted resources,’ and caused further delays.[xiv]

There needs to be a renewed commitment on the part of both the Canadian government and its allies to translating principles into action. Moving forward, there also needs to be greater dedication to engaging with veterans’ groups across the political spectrum in an open dialogue. As active partners, veterans can help determine the direction of future policy and revitalize efforts to make VAC a more efficient and transparent organisation. In a 2013 report issued by the Office of the Veterans’ Ombudsman, the authors rightly point out that, ‘those who serve in the Canadian Forces do so willingly, knowing that they may be injured, become ill or die as a result of their service.’[xv] They also highlight that, ‘by putting the needs of Canada and Canadians ahead of their own, they forego some of the rights and freedoms enjoyed by other citizens.’[xvi] While service personnel willingly make such sacrifices, they do so with the expectation that they will be treated fairly upon their return home. Not only is it morally right to meet these expectations, it is also vital for the military as an organisation. Recruitment is a difficult enterprise at the best of times. If the next generation is to consider the armed forces as a viable career option, they must be assured of the state’s commitment to their wellbeing. Investing in veterans is an investment in the future.

Questions for discussion include:

How should the word ‘veteran’ be defined for the purposes of government compensation and care schemes?

A multitude of veterans’ charities and organizations have been established over the past decade. Who should represent veterans in negotiating with the state?

 

*Poppies pinned to Canadian Military. Photo courtesy of Getty Images.

[i] Mandy Kovacs, ‘Canadian veterans remain critical of government,’ Global News (28 Jan 2015), http://globalnews.ca/news/1798943/canadian-veterans-remain-critical-of-government/; David Pugliese, ‘The battle for veterans’ votes: Conservatives a target for some former military,’ Ottawa Citizen (2 Feb 2015), http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/the-battle-for-veterans-votes-conservatives-the-target-for-some-former-military; Murray Brewster, ‘Veterans Affairs handed back $1.1- billion in unspent funds: documents,’ Globe and Mail (20 Nov 2014), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/11-billion-in-unspent-funds-at-veterans-affairs-documents-show/article21665655/

[ii] Office of the Veterans Ombudsman, ‘Improving the New Veterans Charter: The Parliamentary Review,’ Government of Canada (Jan 2013), p. 3.

[iii] Kieron Lang, ‘Feds spend $694K in legal fight against veterans,’ CTVNews (28 Jan 2015), http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/feds-spent-694k-in-legal-fight-against-veterans-1.2209816; Murray Brewster, ‘Afghan vets lawsuit over benefits on hold as Tories search for settlement,’ CBC News (13 Mar 2015), http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/afghan-vets-lawsuit-over-benefits-on-hold-as-tories-search-for-settlement-1.2993572

[iv] Gloria Galloway, ‘Ottawa to announce better benefits for disabled veterans and their caregivers,’ Globe and Mail (17 Mar 2015), http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/ottawa-to-announce-better-benefits-for-disabled-veterans-and-their-caregivers/article23489674/

[v] Stephen Garton, The Cost of War: Australians Return (Melbourne: OUP, 1996), p. 88.

[vi] Notes on War Pension Schemes of UK, Canada, Australia, NZ and South Africa, Sept. 1945, The National Archives at Kew (TNA): PIN 15/3069; World Veterans Federation (WVF), Social Affairs Rehabilitation, Comparative Report: Legislation Affecting Disabled Veterans and Other War Veterans WVF-DOC/830 (Paris, France: WVF, Sept. 1955), Veterans Affairs Canada—Canadian Forces Advisory Council, The Origins and Evolution of Veterans Benefits in Canada (Ottawa: Veterans Affairs Canada, 2004); Alice Aiken and Amy Buitenhuis, Supporting Canadian Veterans with Disabilities (Kingston, ON: Defence Management Studies Program, Queen’s University, 2011).

[vii] Garton, The Cost of War, pp. 167-169.

[viii] Senator Roméo Dallaire, as quoted in, Office of Veterans Ombudsman, ‘Improving the New Veterans Charter: The Parliamentary Review,’ Govt. of Canada (Jan. 2013), p. 3.

[ix] Reuters, ‘Obama administration to start new group to advise on veterans issues,’ Reuters (13 Mar 2015) http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/13/us-usa-veterans-idUSKBN0M919W20150313

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Graeme Strachan, ‘Compensate our veterans faster urges former army captain,’ Courier (16 Mar 2015), http://www.thecourier.co.uk/news/scotland/compensate-our-veterans-faster-urges-former-army-captain-1.851716

[xii] Sima Kotecha, ‘Injured veterans ‘face delays over compensation claims,’ BBC News (6 Aug 2014), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28656924; Laurence Dodds, ‘Injured veterans facing long compensation delays,’ Telegraph (7 Aug 2014), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/defence/11017500/Injured-veterans-facing-long-compensation-delays.html

[xiii] Kotecha, ‘Injured veterans.’

[xiv] Ministry of Defence, Cm 7798: Review of the Armed Forces Compensation Scheme (Feb 2010).

[xv] Office of Veterans Ombudsman, ‘Improving the New Veterans Charter: The Parliamentary Review,’ Govt. of Canada (Jan. 2013), p. 6.

[xvi] Ibid.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Colonel Panter-Downes: Tending One’s Bureaucratic Garden

Mon, 16/03/2015 - 11:37

Greeting’s readers. For this week’s professional discussion we have a piece from our Colonel thinking about how to tend the military bureaucracies. Often derided for the inanity of the extremes, it must be admitted that but for these internal organizing principles and apparatuses large and complex institutions like the armed forces would exceed human administration. Thus, evil though it might perpetuate, the bureaucracy also means that things really do get done rather than collapsing under the weight of every detail. The challenge is in discriminating such that you preserve the good and manage the bad, identify the flab while maintaining the muscle.  So, read the piece, consider the questions, and join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW.

 

I enjoy gardening. There is something both satisfying and therapeutic about working with nature in the pursuit of growth.  I would not however say that I am a good gardener; in fact my gardening skills have been described as somewhat apocalyptic. In an attempt to improve my green fingered skills I often listen in to BBC Radio’s “Gardeners’ Question Time” a thoroughly British institution. A hardy perennial on this show is the subject of pruning which is often necessary to encourage new growth, and it is with the subject of pruning in mind that my thoughts turned to that of military bureaucracy.

It is a given in every military that military bureaucracy is bad and needs pruning.  The former might or might not be the case but the latter is definitely true.  There is a lot of dead bureaucracy out there, bureaucracy that has served its purpose and is no longer required.  This needs cut back to focus on the essential bureaucracy, for bureaucracy is essential.  Now my well thumbed copy of Charles Handy’s “Understanding Organisations” (an excellent book, every field grade officer should own it) uses German sociologist’s Max Weber’s definition of a bureaucracy as:

  1. A division of labour in which authority and responsibility is clearly defined for each member, and is officially sanctioned.
  2. Offices or positions are organized into a hierarchy of authority resulting in a chain of command.
  3. All organisational members are to be selected on the basis of technical qualifications through formal examinations or by virtue of training and education.
  4. Officials are to be appointed, not elected.
  5. Administrators work for fixed salaries and are career officers.
  6. The administrative official does not own the administered unit but is a salaried official.
  7. The administrator is subject to strict rules, discipline, and controls regarding the official duties.

From this definition it is very clear that we, the military, are indeed a bureaucracy (whether we like it or not). What I want to talk about however, is the manifestation of bureaucracy in the rules, regulations, requirements and paperwork peculiar to our institutions.

The intent of a bureaucratic structure is to enable an organisation to function effectively and efficiently.  Bureaucracy, the manifestation of a bureaucratic structure, is supposed to be the oil that lubricates the cogs of power, not the grit that jams the gearing.  All too often however the means (a bureaucracy) becomes the end; in the British Army we refer to this state as a “self-licking lollipop”. The same is often perceived as true for the forms in which bureaucracy takes, the process seems to become an end in itself.  Yet all those rules, regulations and paperwork we chafe at serve a purpose, or did so at one time.  Where that purpose is redundant the bureaucracy has become dead bureaucracy, the purpose is dead but the process remains; like old growth it too needs pruning.

As a rough bureaucratic gardener’s rule of thumb the more bureaucracy irritates us the greater the requirement for pruning. We chafe most against those elements whose purpose we cannot discern, or whose utility we see as peripheral (at best) to operational output. Few chafe at the requirement to sit a driving test and hold a driving license before driving.  Furthermore that which we chafe against reveals much about our organisation. Bureaucracy is supposed to enable the effective and efficient functioning of the organisation, it assists in minimizing risk; but what kind of risk and risk to whom? Bureaucracy can be a window to the soul of the organisation exposing what is acceptable and what is not, where risk is tolerated and where not.  It can tell us uncomfortable truths about who we are.

In thinking down this path I was struck by elements on both sides of the Atlantic.  In the UK leave for field grade officers and above is self-certified.  For those below field grade an application is made to the chain of command which simply states when you want leave and where you will be spending it.  Here in the US the following are required:  Leave Pass request sheet, Hard Copy DA 31, Leave and Earnings Statement (LES), Travel Risk Planning System (TRiPS) completed and a detailed Travel Plan, Privately Operated Vehicle (POV) inspection certificate (is your car safe to drive), flight itinerary (as applicable), and the AKO MEDPROS printout.  It seems to me a little excessive and I was surprised that anyone let alone field grades, was required to complete this.  Presumably if you have commanded a company or a battalion you can be trusted to plan your leave or does mission command only apply in the field?  In this instance the bureaucracy in camp seems at odds with the command ethos in the field.  Now I can understand the purpose of this bureaucratic requirement, but does one size fit all? What mechanism exists for pruning back this when it is no longer relevant?  When I think of my experience of the US Army’s bureaucracy I think of “bureaucracy by attrition”. It tells me that this is an organisation that does not welcome people “stepping out of lane”; its manifestation and ethos seems at odds with the Army Operating Concept.

Much of the UK bureaucracy that I find irksome, owes as much in my opinion to minimising political and reputational risk as it does to operational effectiveness.  I understand the requirement to maintain an operational training record of all training a soldier receives prior to deployment. I cannot help but feel however, that the bureaucracy that now surrounds this requirement owes more to providing an audit trail in the event of an inquest than it does to ensuring that soldiers are sufficiently trained to deploy. The amount of bureaucracy seems excessive to the (operational) value gained, but guards reputational risk (we train our soldiers effectively) and minimizes political risk (training was resourced correctly).   Likewise I was struck by the bureaucracy regarding working with Personally Identifiable Information (PII).  Successive UK governments have been embarrassed by the loss of PII by different government departments (including the Ministry of Defence).  Naturally this has resulted in a regime to enforce best practice and accountability.  But again, the handling of PII has been normalized, we know how to do it, The annual training and certification programme now seems excessive  to the requirement and indicates the absence of risk tolerance in this area.  It seems to me that the UK bureaucratic emphasis indicates acute political sensitivity and a focus on minimizing (organisational) reputational risk.

We military personnel are largely bureaucrats in a bureaucratic organisation.  We should acknowledge and embrace this, because it is only by doing this that we can recognise the impacts of our bureaucracy on our organisations for good and for ill.  To parody Clausewitz  “The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgment that the leader has to make is to establish . . . the kind of ethos on which they are embarking and the bureaucracy to support it.”

 

So my questions for this week are simple:

What does your bureaucracy tell you about your organisation?

What would you prune?

Where would you encourage new growth?

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Veterans, Victims and the ‘Culture of Trauma’*

Mon, 02/03/2015 - 11:30

Welcome to this week’s CCLKOW discussion piece. This time, we are looking at the portrayal and perception of military veterans in the UK and other western countries. In short, veterans are frequently characterised as ‘victims,’ in the media and by the public at large. Moreover, there is increasing concern that they will experience long-term mental health problems in the wake of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. However, veterans are a far more heterogeneous and resilient group than reports seem to indicate. Read the piece and join the discussion on Twitter at #CCLKOW

In the last few years, media reports have suggested that there are an alarming number of British veterans experiencing service-related psychological problems. Commentators have argued that an increasing pool of ex-servicemen and women are falling through the cracks. As operations in Afghanistan have come to a close, numerous authors have expressed the fear that a record number of veterans will present with mental health problems like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD) in the near future.[i] The debate over how best to address their needs and foster a supportive environment for these men and women has become highly politicised. In the process, the veteran has become a hotly contested figure. The popular portrayal of military veterans in the UK and other western countries has only served to further complicate this dialogue.

There is a growing and widespread perception amongst the media and public alike that war is a universally traumatising event and veterans, without exception will be damaged by their experiences. Beginning in 2011, Conservative peer Lord Ashcroft conducted a study to evaluate public opinion of the British Armed Forces. Amongst his chief findings, he reported that, ‘in our poll of the UK public, more than nine out of ten thought it was common for those leaving the Force to have “some kind of physical, emotional or mental problem” as a result of their time in the military; more than a third (34%) thought it was “very common” for this to be the case.’[ii] In a recent article, journalist Max Hastings has also pointed out that, ‘those who have participated in wars are widely perceived not as protagonists…but instead as victims.’[iii] Popular television shows of the past decade frequently depict veterans as broken individuals who can lash out violently at those around them. They are characterised as ‘ticking time bombs,’ who will inevitably experience difficulties in processing their experiences.[iv]

This image is further reinforced when the war in question is unpopular. As historian Helen McCartney has underlined, ‘much of the UK newspaper coverage of the armed forces depicts service personnel as victims, either of failed strategies in Iraq and Afghanistan or of government underspending or MoD incompetence.’[v] In the United States, retired four star General Jim Mattis has also publicly criticized news outlets and politicians for helping, ‘fuel [the] perception that most or all…veterans come back from war traumatized.’[vi] Mattis is but one of many voices within the wider community of American veterans who have expressed concern over public perception.[vii]

On both sides of the Atlantic, the black and white picture that has been presented does not accurately reflect the complexity of the issue at hand and lacks a great deal of nuance. According to a 2014 study conducted by researchers at the King’s Centre for Military Health Research, ‘contrary to many people’s expectations, deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan has not led to an overall increase in mental health problems among UK personnel.’[viii] The authors estimated that only around 1.3% to 4.8% of UK Regulars returning from deployment exhibited symptoms of probable PTSD.[ix] Recent reports also indicate that rates of suicide are lower within the military than in the civilian population.[x] In general, veterans who have deployed on more than one occasion are less likely to suffer from ‘subsequent mental health problems.’[xi] Around 18,000 service personnel are discharged from the British Armed Forces every year. While little research has been done on service leavers in the UK, the American literature suggests that, ‘military service for most people, has a positive effect on…life trajectory.’[xii]

There will be those veterans who experience psychological difficulties as a result of their service and will require help in processing their experiences and adjusting to civilian life. Scholars have identified several groups (e.g. combat veterans, reservists) as at higher risk for mental health problems.[xiii] These veterans and their families deserve to be treated fairly and receive the attention that they require. Be that as it may, the present paradigm of the veteran as victim fails to acknowledge the range of human experience in relation to trauma. Not all veterans are damaged by their experiences of war. Acknowledging this resilience does not trivialize or delegitimize individual suffering. On the contrary, it simply recognizes the complexities of how human beings react to stressful or traumatic events and the difficulties inherent in trying to neatly categorise people into boxes.

Over the next decade, the UK and its allies will undoubtedly continue to face challenges in caring for and adequately addressing the needs of a new generation of veterans. There is evidence to suggest that stigma remains a barrier to those who might wish to seek professional help.[xiv] Furthermore, the military footprint is shrinking in response to cuts in manpower. Consequently, fewer members of the public have ties to those in uniform. There is also a need to continue improving the options available to veterans and their families in connection to services like counseling.[xv] However, this process should not be informed by extreme stereotypes but by a well-rounded and realistic picture of the veteran population. The public should be encouraged to see veterans as they would see themselves, as human beings with challenges to face and reserves of strength upon which to draw. Like civilians, service personnel and veterans struggle with addiction, depression and many other disorders. Equally, they can recover and/or live with those disorders and still have much to offer society. Moreover, they frequently exhibit a remarkable resilience that should be recognized and celebrated.

So the questions for this week are:

Does public perception help or hinder the recovery of veterans who have experienced trauma?

How should the media portray veterans in order to more accurately reflect their experiences?

Is it possible to effectively ‘support the soldier’ without supporting the cause for which they fight?

 

*’Culture of trauma’ is a phrase that appears to have been coined by Ben Shephard, War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Twentieth Century, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), p. 385.

[i] Sima Kotecha, ‘Care for UK Military Veterans is “Flawed,” Medical Experts Say,’ BBC News, 29 Oct 2014.

[ii] Lord Ashcroft, ‘The Armed Forces & Society: The military in Britain—through the eyes of Service personnel, employers, and the public’ (May 2012), p. 15.

[iii] Max Hastings, ‘Veterans and Mental Health in Contemporary Britain,’ Royal United Services Institute Journal 159, No. 6 (Dec 2014), p. 36.

[iv] Ben Farmer, ‘Army recruitment could be hit by charities portraying troops as victims,’ Telegraph (25 Dec 2013), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/defence/10531300/Army-recruitment-could-be-hit-by-charities-portraying-troops-as-victims.html.

[v] Helen McCartney, ‘The military covenant and the civil-military contract in Britain,’ International Affairs 86, No. 2 (2010), p. 424.

[vi] General Jim Mattis, as quoted in, Jim Michaels, ‘Mattis: Veterans are not victims,’ USA Today (5 May 2014), http://www.usatoday.com/story/nation/2014/05/05/mattis-iraq-afghanistan-marines-usmc/8632093/.

[vii] David Morris, ‘Surviving War Doesn’t Turn All Veterans into Victims, Sometimes it Helps Them Grow,’ The Daily Beast (18 May 2014), http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/05/18/surviving-war-doesn-t-turn-all-veterans-into-victims-sometimes-it-helps-them-grow.html; Dave Philipps, ‘Coming Home to Damaging Stereotypes,’ New York Times (5 Feb 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/06/us/a-veteran-works-to-break-the-broken-hero-stereotype.html?_r=0

[viii] Deirdre MacManus, N Jones, S Wessely, NT Fear, E Jones, N Greenberg, ‘The mental health of the UK Armed Forces in the 21st century: resilience in the face of adversity,’ J R Army Med Corps 0 (2014), p. 1.

[ix] Ibid., p. 2.

[x] MoD, ‘Suicide and Open Verdict Deaths in the UK Regular Armed Forces 1985-2013,’ 27 March 2014; ‘Myth Busters,’ Combat Stress (2015), http://www.combatstress.org.uk/veterans/myth-busters/#VeteransAndSuicide

[xi] James Gallagher, ‘”Violence Risk” after Military Tours,’ BBC News, 15 March 2013.

[xii] Amy Iverson, Vasilis Nikolaou, Neil Greenberg, Catherine Unwin, Lisa Hull, Mathew Hotopf, Christopher Dandeker, John Ross and Simon Wessely, ‘What happens to British veterans when they leave the armed forces?,’ European Journal of Public Health 15, No. 2 (2005), pp. 175-184.

[xiii] MacManus, N Jones, Wessely, NT Fear, E Jones, Greenberg, ‘The mental health of the UK Armed Forces in the 21st century,’ p. 1.

[xiv] Amy C Iverson, Lauren van Staden, Jamie Hacker Hughes, Neil Greenberg, Matthew Hotopf, Roberto J Rona, Graham Thornicroft, Simon Wessely, and Nicola T Fear, ‘The stigma of mental health problems and other barriers to care in the UK Armed Forces,’ BioMed Central Health Services Research 11 (2011), pp. 1-10.

[xv] MoD, ‘Annual Medical Discharges in the UK Regular Armed Forces 2009/10-2013/14,’ 10 July 2014.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

Hybrid War (or hypercompetition….)

Tue, 24/02/2015 - 21:06

A while ago – I lose track of when – I wrote about something on KoW which I’d clumsily called hypercompetition. I don’t claim anything particularly original about the notion, but I heard it blaring out of my radio last week under the guise of something now called hybrid war. 

The problem of the conspiracy theory accusations or difficulties with hypercompetition seem to have been politically overcome with the perception of threat provided by Russia in Ukraine. Prior to this a notion that Russian funding of things of influence might be problematic was bracketed under the heading of ‘conspiracy theory’. Money likes to travel.. and in this globalised world money is colour blind.. let it come from wherever it comes. That sort of thing. And it’s not to pick on the Russian money, certainly not in the way I think about this hybridity or hypercompetition. It strikes me that there is rather a large number of states and significant networks of influence leveraging influence.

There are several underpinning follow-on questions:

1) Is this is a paranoid view of the world? Does it too close to conspiracy theory? Two responses: 1) a wise friend of mine noted that all IR theories are merely a myopia or conspiracy built upon the exponent’s preferences. So, this is merely a dissenting voice. As those mainstream conceptions were when they were mooted.

2) Is Western Europe just really bad at this form of warfare or influence? Following media reportage, it would appear that we’re under siege from many external sources. That we’re the timid supplicant… flotsam bounced around by nasty ‘forren’ types. I’m not convinced we’re bad at the prosecution of this kind of activity – afterall, if 500 years of imperialism hasn’t taught us something we should give up and cower at home. However, we seem very bad at countering it at home. Part of this might be the Bronwen Jones line of the coloniser being eventually colonised, but I think our weakness and vulnerability actually stems from the near universal acceptance of a narrative that, for instance, says that third country investment in our core infrastructure is ‘just the market’ rather than representing something political. Afterall, the restrictive rules on FDI in other countries means that we’re not aligned to a brand of universal thought on this. The underfunding of European universities – for example – means that the sector arguably has taken to servicing global elites and seeking out international (non-EU) money (from all sorts of places) that helps to tailor intellectual agendas and allows for foreign-domestic political debates/fights to be had on EU soil, away from the more problematic political environments of those students. This is the sort of political activity that gave European governments the creeps in the 1920s, and whilst the positive externalities of internationalisation are clear to those who work in universities – as anyone engaged in Horizon2020 funding, or in finding research partners in the US will tell you – there is a potential darker side that administrators seem unkeen to think about. Whether these networks pose a risk or not would require the right question, the right data and fine judgments. And of course it might be that we are fine exponents of exporting our own norms…

So, should we be worried about this hybridity as it pertains to Russia. Well, Russian money has traveled, and London’s housing market is partly inflated and propped up by it. Money has traveled into think-tanks and research efforts, and into infrastructure. Leveraging influence is not solely a case of invest and nice things will follow. But it helps. The Economist – which has become increasingly shrill on this issue – plotted Russian connections to European political parties to more than suggest that hybrid war threatened the fabric of the continent and the European project in particular. But most of the scaryness seems to be because of the word Russia, rather than the pattern of behaviour, which is a logic of neoliberal economics and PR/influence. Can we unpick or understand the complex influences on our politics (both organisational and ideological)? No. Should we pay attention to the fine documentary by Adam Curtis, Bitter Lake...? Yes, well worth a watch.

So, I would say this, wouldn’t I… but there is much in the concept of hybrid war. But we are only at the start of really understanding what is meant by it, and a country mile off understanding how to counter it. Particularly when countering it will rely upon a challenge to neoliberal orthodoxies.

Categories: Defence`s Feeds

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