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Benvinguts a la República Independent de Catalunya !

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Mon, 10/02/2017 - 00:00

Freedom of expression is the right of every person to think as he wishes and to be able to express his opinions by any means he deems appropriate in the fields of politics, philosophy, religion, morals. Freedom of expression in a democratic country of the European Union is considered illegal. In a EU that never hesitates to give lessons in human rights and democracy, for example to African or Balkans countries.

According to Barcelona, the YES has won with 90% of the votes. Some 2.26 million people voted and 2.02 million voted in favor of independence. These figures represent a participation of almost 42.3%, Catalonia counting 5.34 million voters.

The referendum is quite illegal under the Spanish Constitution and the interpretation given to it by the Spanish Constitutional Court. ("It is not within the competence of the autonomies to hold consultations ... which have an impact on the fundamental issues resolved by the constitutional process.") But it is legal according to the Catalan law.

Tag: Catalunya
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Airbus Family Flight

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Thu, 06/15/2017 - 22:06

Air show with an A350 XWB, an A400M, an Eurofighter Typhoon and an H160 helicopter.

Tag: Airbus
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP


CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Fri, 04/07/2017 - 22:14

From 3 to 14 April 2017 in the Western Mediterranean, 1 000 French soldiers participate in SKRENVIL operational training. This joint exercise between the French Army and the Navy is designed to ensure amphibious deployment procedures.

As part of this operational training, an amphibious group is deployed in the Mediterranean. It is composed of the Dixmude (Projection and Command Ship,BPC), Cassard (Antiaircraft Frigate, FAA), Montcalm (Anti-submarine Frigate, FASM) and the Mediterranean demining group (GPD Med). Command Landing Group / CLG is provided at the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment (2nd REI).

A Joint Battle Group (GTIA) of the 6th Light Armored Brigade composed of different units of the 2th REI, 1st REG (Foreign Regiment of Engineers), 1st REC (Foreign Cavalry Regiment), 3rd RAMa (Marine Artillery Regiment) of the 5th RHC (Combat Helicopter Regiment), is created for the occasion. The major equipment involved is 15 VBCI (Armored Infantry Combat Vehicle) and a dozen VAB (Front Armored Vehicle), as well as 4 Puma and Gazelle helicopters.

The amphibious detachment boarded the Diksmuide with its 2 Equipment Chalands (CTM) and a Rapid Amphibious Landing Craft (EDAR).
This training consists of two phases:
- evacuation of nationals,
- followed by a grounding of the GTIA.
In total, some 20 vehicles, maneuver helicopters and attack helicopters will have to land in a coordinated way to make a progression of about 30 kilometers.

This training is characterized by a suitable training ground, the realism of the scenario, the means and the military capabilities. These are all specific features that allow the Army and the Navy to maneuver jointly and to be sufficiently reactive in the event of an amphibious operation.

Tag: SKRENVIL-2017
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

50th anniversary of the launch France`s first SSBN submarine

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Wed, 03/29/2017 - 00:00

29 March 1967: 50 years ago, Le Redoutable, first French SSBN to ensure the permanence of nuclear deterrence, was launched in the presence of General de Gaulle in France, single autonomous nuclear military power in Europe. Nuclear deterrence is designed to protect people against any aggression of state origin against our vital interests, wherever it may come from and whatever form it may take. Strictly defensive, its use is conceivable only in extreme circumstances of self-defense.

Following the Second World War, France, wants to make nuclear the keystone of the energy and strategic independence of the country. In 1958, the French military nuclear program was formalized by General de Gaulle. By mastering this technology France ensures a place alongside the American and Soviet superpowers. In the 1960s, it was decided to equip the navy with a nuclear launching submarine. On March 29, 1967, Le Redoutable was launched ..

A step is taken. But that activity still to be deployed before the presentation to the tests planned for 1969! The outer shells and thick shells are finished, but the access chambers, flaps of the torpedo tubes, the hydroreactors intended to stabilize the SNLE during the firing of the missiles must be mounted and the breach of the machined reactor compartment.

The gateway, the platforms and the incorporated boxes are installed at 90%. But the partitions are installed only 70% and the carlingages, the crossings of hull, the definitive ballasting to 35%. As for the sailing shelter with its ailerons, too high, it can not be mounted before the launch. For the propulsion, tank, exchangers and pressurizers were embarked, the primary circuit was tried, but clutch, turbo-reducer group, condensers and cradles of the turbo-generator group are being lineed. The main cable layers have been fitted, but the circuit-breaker cabinets are just embedded.

This launch seems modest at a time when the US nuclear submarine fleet is hosting its 41st SSBN and the Soviet fleet already has twenty such units. But with the completion in May of the construction of the Pierrelatte isotope separation plant, which is essential for the enriched uranium of the reactors, and the continuation of the experiments to reach the H-bomb, a major step is taken. "An additional and costly illustration of a ruinous, dangerous and inefficient military policy", according to L'Humanité, or "a capital day for our navy, our defense and, hence, our independence", according to General Le Redoutable does not leave indifferent.


Tag: SSBNLe RedoutableFrance
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

MPCC : the new military headquarter of the EU

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Mon, 03/06/2017 - 23:00

European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker called for a common EU defence headquarters in September after the Brexit vote, resurrecting an idea that had circulated in the EU for years. Today, the European Union has approved plans for a military headquarters to coordinate overseas security operation, foreign and defence ministers of the 28 member states (Britain having long opposed it) "unanimously" backed the project.

The new MPCC (Military Planning Conduct and Capability facility) will command the EU's non-executive military missions. The facility will initially run three operations - civil-military training missions in Mali, the Central African Republic and Somalia - which do not involve the use of force, other than in self-defence. The MPCC will initially have a small staff of around 30 and come under the EU's existing military structures.

But top EU officials, including Ms Mogherini, have had to repeatedly issue reassurances that the bloc is not going to undercut NATO as the primary defence for Europe. Besides Britain, many of the former Communist states of eastern Europe such as Poland and Hungary have argued consistently that NATO must come first, given the need for US support in facing a more assertive Russia.

The EU has also mounted Operation Sophia in the central Mediterranean, which can use force to stop migrant smugglers, and Operation Atalanta, part of international antipiracy forces off the Horn of Africa, these executive operations have their own command centres which will remain separate.

Tag: MPCCMogheriniCSDP
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

U-turn : Sweden brings back military conscription

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Thu, 03/02/2017 - 18:35

The Swedish government has decided to reintroduce military conscription, abolished in 2010. It means that 4,000 men and women will be called up for service from 1 January 2018, selected from about 13,000 young people born in 1999, who will be asked to undergo a military assessment. The 13,000 who undergo the military tests will be a mixture of volunteers and conscripts. The Swedish recruitment system will be modelled on Norway's. In September, a Swedish garrison was restored to Gotland, a big island lying between the Swedish mainland and the three ex-Soviet Baltic states.

The return to conscription was prompted by the security change in the neighbourhood, Russian "illegal" annexation of Crimea[in 2014, the conflict in Ukraine and the increased military activity in the area. Russian menace pushes Sweden towards NATO, Swedish officials say Russian military aircraft frequently infringe Swedish airspace. 70% of the Swedish parliament is behind the decision to strengthen the military and co-operation with the countries around. The closest co-operation is with Finland, she added. Sweden and Finland are not in NATO, but co-operate closely with the alliance. Their Nordic neighbours Norway and Denmark are in NATO. Sweden has about 52,000 full-time military personnel - 20,000 of them permanent staff and most of the others Home Guard members.

Which other European countries have conscription?
Most of the 28 EU member states abolished military conscription. France and the UK - the main pillars of NATO defence in Western Europe - made their armed forces fully professional (France in 2001, the UK in 1963). Germany suspended conscription in 2011, but provision for it remains in the constitution. There is a debate now about reintroducing some form of national service.
Turkey has the second-largest armed forces in NATO, after the US military. Turkey has conscription for all men over the age of 20. They must serve between six and 15 months.
Greece has compulsory military service (9 months) for men from the age of 19. Cyprus - a longstanding source of Greek-Turkish tension - also has conscription.
Denmark, Norway and Finland have limited conscription, but their forces are overwhelmingly professional. Estonia and Lithuania - small Baltic states wary of Russian moves near their borders - have similar recruitment policies.
Switzerland operates a militia system, whereby men have to serve periods in the armed forces from 19 to 34 years of age, and keep their equipment at home.
In Russia all men aged 18-27 have to spend a year in the armed forces and Ukraine brought back conscription in 2014, when tensions with Russia escalated.

Which other East or Nord European countries, near to Russia or Ukraine, will also choice the same u-turn like Sweden?

Source :

Tag: Military conscriptionSwedenNATO
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

EUCAP Nestor renamed as EUCAP Somalia

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Wed, 03/01/2017 - 00:00

On March 1 st EUCAP Nestor, the European Union Maritime Capacity Building Mission to Somalia, will be renamed “EUCAP Somalia”, the EU Capacity Building Mission in Somalia.
A Council decision published on December 12th 2016 in the Official Journal of the European Union, states in article 1, EUCAP Somalia has been established as a Capacity Building Mission in Somalia.

The operational “switch-over” to the new Mission’s name is now taking place.
For the occasion, a redesign of the Mission's Website has been launched under . All past content from has been migrated and will be accessible on the new site.

EUCAP Somalia operates under a new, broadened civilian maritime security mandate. With an active presence in Mogadishu, Hargeisa (Somaliland) and Garowe (Puntland), EUCAP Somalia works to strengthen Somali capacity to ensure maritime security, carry out fisheries inspection and enforcement, ensure maritime search and rescue, counter smuggling, fight piracy and police the coastal zone on land and at sea.


Tag: EUCAP SomaliaEUCAP Nestor
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Denmark pays (also) disability benefits for ISIS fighters

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Tue, 02/21/2017 - 10:31

The Danish government is paying sickness and disability benefits to Danish citizens fighting in Syria for Islamic State. The PET (Danish Security and Intelligence Service) has identified 28 jihadis, Danish citizens fighting in Syria since 2014, who had been granted an early pension, or ‘førtidspension’, because they were judged too sick or disabled to work, and then gone to take part in the war in Syria.

It is a huge scandal that danish people disburse money from the welfare fund in Denmark for people who go to Syria, staying in a war zone and directly or indirectly taking part in military operations is not something that is in any way compatible with receiving disability benefits. PET provided the information as part of preparations for a parliamentary bill which aims to make it easier to cut off benefits to Danes fighting in Syria.
Last December the Ekstra Bladet newspaper reported that Danish municipalities and the country's state unemployment fund were attempting to claim back a total of 672,000 kroner ($100,000) in wrongfully disbursed payments from 29 of the 36 Danes PET then estimated were had been collecting benefits.

We know, since 2015, that ISIS fighters in Syria have been receiving also unemployment benefits from Denmark, according to the agency for Labour Market and Recruitment (STAR) via PET. Government data revealed that 32 Danish citizens have collected about 400,000 kroner ($57,000) in welfare from the government while fighting alongside the jihadist group in Syria.
Denmark’s unemployment insurance systems is one of the world’s most generous, as those on the dagpenge scheme can receive up to 801 kroner, around £78, per day for up to two years.

Denmark, congratulation! If you often refuse to financing EU CSDP missions/operations, please do not support our common enemies. After the scandal concerning the uneployment benefits, two additional years to unveil the abuse about disability benefits...


Tag: ISISDenmark
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Aircraft carrier Sao Paulo will be decommissioned

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Wed, 02/15/2017 - 00:00

Aircraft carrier "São Paulo" (ex R99 Foch, built in France between 1957 and 1960) was incorporated into the Brazilian Navy in 2000, based on an opportunity purchase from the French National Navy, for US$30 million — no aircraft were included in the price — with the primary purpose of replacing the former "Minas Gerais" Light-Aircraft, at the end of its useful life, and providing the evolution of airborne operations using fixed wing aircraft and A-4 Skyhawk jet propulsion.

Although it already has 37 years of active service at the moment of acquisition, the Ship fulfilled its mission in the first years in activity by the Brazilian fleet, enabling the Navy to acquire the qualification to operate high performance aircraft embarked.

After several attempts to recover operational capacity of the brazil aircraft carrier "NAe Sao Paulo" (A 12), the Brazil Admiralty concluded that the modernization would require high financial investment contain technical uncertainties and would require a long completion period and decided to demobilize the environment, over the next three years.

A program to obtain a new ship-aerodrome x aircraft set will occupy the Navy's third acquisition priority, following the PROSUB / Nuclear Program and the Tamandaré Corvette Construction Program. The cost of acquiring this new binomial will be substantially lower than the cost of the modernization of the "Sao Paulo" and of the obtaining new aircraft compatible with this aircraft carrier. The AF-1 aircraft are expected to be at the end of their life when São Paulo ends its modernization.

NAe : Navio Aerodromo

Tag: aircraft carrierSao PaoloR99 FochFrench Navy
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

German military: female soldier 'forced to pole dance'

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Wed, 02/15/2017 - 00:00

An internal Defence Ministry report reveals more details about an unfolding scandal at a Baden-Württemberg barracks involving "sadistic rituals". The internal report seen by Spiegel and DPA describes a female soldier being forced by her trainers to pole dance and also separately being touched in intimate areas.

The report comes from the woman’s account of an incident last year at the Pfullendorf barracks, which has been the centre of scandal in recent weeks. The woman said that she was forced to undergo some kind of recruitment test where she had to dance against a pole in a common room. She also said that throughout the training sessions, trainees were made to strip naked, and women were touched by trainers, not wearing any gloves, in intimate areas. The trainers then did a ‘smell test’ in front of the whole group. The trainers also had trainees sign a consent form, and took pictures which they said were for training purposes.

Internal research also found that the dancing pole had been installed and used regularly while soldiers were drinking. The report also noted that investigators had largely confirmed the woman’s account. Seven soldiers have been suspended amid an ongoing investigation into grievous bodily harm against trainees, as well as false imprisonment, and sexual assault. The investigation reportedly dates back to last October when a female lieutenant reported incidents directly to the Defence Ministry. The lieutenant described how she saw unbelievable scenes of recruits being forced to strip naked in front of their comrades, with trainers filming.

She also reported that trainers had forced the recruits to do exercises that served no purpose other than sexual ones, such as reviewing how to insert medical devices into the anuses of male and female recruits, which was also recorded.
In the US Army Female army members allegedly pressured into prostitution.


Tag: German ArmyPfullendorf
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Polish firm updates Mi-24 for Senegal

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Tue, 01/31/2017 - 14:16

Poland’s Lodz-based WZL-1 (Wojskowe Zakłady Lotnicze Nr 1 S.A. (Military Aviation Works No. 1) has completed the modernisation, conducts maintenance, repair, overhaul of a Mil Mi-24V (6W-HCA) attack helicopter for the Senegal Air Force. The secondhand rotorcraft is understood to have been acquired from a former Soviet-era operator.

Acceptance flights were conducted on 12 January by a team of Polish and Senegalese personnel, and witnessed by the customer air force’s commander-in-chief, Brig Gen Birame Diop. This is the first Mi-24 to have been acquired by Senegal, and it is unclear whether the West African nation intends to field additional examples.
Flight Fleets Analyzer records the Senegal air force as already operating a pair of 11-year-old Mi-35s, which it acquired directly from Russia.

WZL-1 is one of the leading aviation companies in Europe. The company established its position on local, national and foreign market thanks to untypical activity which generally covers:
• overhaul, maintenance and modernization of the following helicopters: Mi-8, Mi-14, Mi-17, Mi-24, W-3 Sokół and SH-2G Kaman;
• general overhaul of SO-3/W aviation engines and TW3-117 (III s, M, MT, W) family engines.

Tag: SenegalMi-24Poland
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

HMS Vengeance : serious Trident missile malfunction

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Mon, 01/23/2017 - 17:45

Downing Street has been accused of covering up a Trident missile malfunction weeks before a crucial Commons vote on the future of the submarine-based missile system.

A Trident II D5 missile test ended in failure after it was launched from the British submarine HMS Vengeance off the coast of Florida in June 2016. It was the only firing test of a British nuclear missile in four years and raises serious questions about the reliability and safety of the weapons system. But the error was hushed up. The cause of the failure remains top secret, but quotes a senior naval source saying the missile, which was unarmed for the test, suffered an in-flight malfunction after launch.

It was reportedly intended to be fired 5,600 miles to a sea target off the west coast of Africa but may have veered off towards America instead. There was a major panic at the highest level of government and the military after the first test of our nuclear deterrent in four years ended in disastrous failure. In July, MPs voted by 472 to 117 to back the renewal of Britain's Trident nuclear deterrence. The overwhelming vote supported the Government's plans to spend up to £40 billion on four new Successor-class submarines.


Tag: HMS VengeanceTridentnucléaire
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

2017 : A Continental Free Trade Area in Africa?

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Sun, 01/01/2017 - 13:25

Under the aegis of the African Union, the 54 states will set up a "Schengen-like" borderless area in 2017 to boost trade. Negotiations for the establishment of a Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA) in Africa were formally launched in June 2015 at the African Union Summit in Johannesburg. A year later, a boost seems to be given to the project, although the project exists since the signing in 1991 of the Treaty of Abuja.

Why now ? In a context of global economic crisis, African states are somewhere forced to accelerate the pace. In 2015 the Tripartite Initiative involving COMESA, EAC and SADC was launched, with a view to the preparation of a large free trade area from Cairo to Cape Town. The Tripartite Initiative, the largest free trade agreement involving 26 countries from three regional economic communities (RECs), Comesa, CEA and SADC, with a total of 530 million inhabitants for a gross domestic product Total of $ 630 billion, more than half of Africa's economic output. This initiative has rekindled the interest of African leaders in broadening the continental free trade area.

Intra-African trade must be saved because it accounts for only 10% of trade on the continent, while in the EU, Asia and North America, intra-regional trade represents respectively 70 %, 52% and 50% of trade. Moreover, the share of Africa in world trade is even more derisory since it represents only about 2%. Implementing such an Africa-wide FTA could boost intra-African trade to the tune of US $ 35 billion annually by 2022. A review of the genesis and functioning of this area of free movement of more than one billion people.

The CFTA is a priority initiative of the AU Agenda 2063. The objective of the CFTA is to create a single continental market for goods and services, to establish the free movement of business people. It also aims to pave the way for the acceleration of the establishment of the customs union in 2022 and an African economic community by 2028. This gradual approach is justified by the fact that integration should be consolidated at regional level, through the creation and the strengthening of regional economic communities (RECs). The RECs would ultimately merge into the African Economic Community. (There are 8 RECs : UMA, CEN-SAD, CEDEAO / ECOWAS, UEMOA, MRU, CEEAC, SADC, COMESA, IGAD.)

The current intra-African trade situation is disappointing. Despite the fact that the free movement of persons, the right of residence and the right of establishment are the founding principles enshrined in Chapter VI of the Abuja Treaty, a truck that delivers supermarkets in Southern Africa needs 1,600 documents, permits and licenses to legally cross borders.In the future, the continental free trade area could just as well require the removal of barriers such as the imposition of visa requirements that restrict the movement of people across national borders. Far from being settled, remains the issue of labor mobility among African countries, one of the most contentious issues for African leaders due to security or political instability problems.

Trade and industry are catalysts for African development for the African Union, once the establishment of the CFTA, the competitiveness of industrial products would be increased by exploiting the potential of economies in a wider continental market . The initiative would also help diversify and transform the African economy, improve resource allocation, reduce prices in countries and make Africa less vulnerable to external trade shocks. In addition, regional integration of the continent should integrate regional markets with efficient infrastructure to attract investment and improve access to better products and services.

Twenty million dollars were raised to finance the initial CFTA projects in the areas of goods and services, investment and intellectual property. Of the amount so far obtained from development partners, the AU Member States contributed $ 3 million for 2016 and $ 4.9 million for 2017.
CFTA can be a paradise for international and african criminality and smuggle, like the Schengen area? Planned for 18 July 2017, the release of an African electronic passport should enable nationals of the 54 African countries to travel visa-free across Africa. For now, the initiative only concerns heads of state, government and foreign ministers. In practice, African citizens would retain their national passports and would be issued an African e-passport by the AU. A first on the world scale. But the billion African citizens will have to wait until 2025 to benefit.

Tag: african continental free trade areaSchengenTripartite InitiativeAbuja Treaty
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

End of the mission EUPOL Afghanistan

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Sat, 12/31/2016 - 00:00

After nearly a decade of support for civilian police in Afghanistan, the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL) officially closed its activities today, Saturday (31 December 2016) at midnight. In fact, the mission has already slowed down its activities for a few days already. A meeting marking the end of the mission was organized, Wednesday, December 14, a few days after the official end of the mission.


Tag: EUPOL AfghanistanCSDP
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Australia buys 12 French Barracuda submarines

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Tue, 12/20/2016 - 09:14

French Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian inked the inter-governmental agreement (IGA) in Adelaide that will see French shipbuilder DCNS design and build the Shortfin Barracudas. The total cost of the 12 submarines, including separate agreements with US and Australian contractors, will hit Aus $50 billion. The vessels will be a scaled-down, conventionally-powered version of France's 4,700-tonne nuclear-fuelled Barracuda but boast the same stealth capabilities.Australia awarded DCNS the main contract in April, beating off competition from Germany TKMS (ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems) and Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

The IGA is the last foundation stone needed to ensure Australia is able to develop a cutting-edge sovereign submarine capability, this will be a sovereign defence industry creating 2,800 jobs at the very cutting edge of technology. Design and mobilisation work has already been launched with Australian experts working in Cherbourg while DCNS was to open new offices in Adelaide later Tuesday employing up to 300 engineers.

US defence contractor Lockheed Martin was named in September to fit the combat systems for the Barracudas.

Tag: BarracudaDCNSAustralian Navy
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

New CERPESC Analysis about EU New Security Strategy

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Tue, 12/20/2016 - 00:00

The Deficiencies, Mistakes and Contradictions of the New EU Foreign and Security Strategy
Evolution or Devolution? From the « Solana Paper » to the « Mogherini Paper »
András István Türke
CERPESC 16/E/3/2016 - 20 December 2016

The events of the last 20 years, the first operations and missions, show that the Common Security and Defense Policy, the CSDP (the European Security and Defense Policy: the ESDP, before 2009) does not exist only on paper. Europe must act to prevent wars and crises or to stop them. The European Union and its member countries are confronted with decisive choices for the future of Europe as a political entity. The external (and above all, energy) dependence of the Union is particularly emphasized by the European security strategies. The documents that function as strategies (the first, the 2003 ESS and the most recent, 2016 EUGS) of the European Union are quite poor in terms of content and objectives. They list the challenges, without drafting the places and means of the overall strategic presence. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the major development issues of EU strategic thinking during the period 2003-2016. Can we talk about development, stagnation, or devolution? Is the new strategy capable of fulfilling its role and can really serve as the basis of our ambitions?

Tag: EUGSESSSolanaMogherini
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

France Creates Cyber Army to Fight Against Foreign Hackers

CSDP Blog (András István Türke) - Wed, 12/14/2016 - 00:00

Since his appointment in 2012, French Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian is concerned about the threats in cyberspace. With reason. CIA suspicions about the role played by Russian hackers in the election of Donald Trump to the fears expressed by the German Chancellor, the "cyber-menace" is now omnipresent. On the occasion of the inauguration on Monday of a skill center on cyber defense in Rennes as well as a new building with 7,000 sensors to house the cyber experiments of the Directorate General of Armaments (DGA) in Bruz (Ille-et-Vilaine), Jean-Yves Le Drian announced in a way the creation of a 4th army, or at least its matrix, that of cyberspace, to complete the army of the last century built on the triptych land, air and sea.

The future cyber force will be based on three missions:
- intelligence (identification of faults, detection of hostile actions),
- protection (building walls of cyber fortress)
- and finally computerized offensive fight (neutralization of tools used by the cyber - opponent).
But Jean-Yves Le Drian goes further: "If a cyber attack is akin to an act of war, notably by the seriousness of its effects, an adequate response must be imposed, even beyond the neutralization of infrastructures alone Involved, in a logic this time of open conflict. "

Clearly, the Minister of Defense warns that in the event of an attack, France reserves the right to retaliate by a cyber or conventional counter-attack. It is the first time that France officially warns its potential opponents that it can qualify a cyber attack in act of war and to respond accordingly. "A major computer attack, given the damage it would cause, could constitute an armed attack within the meaning of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and justify the invocation of self-defense," the Minister said. So to replicate in a "proportional" way, we need a cyber-army.

On Monday, the minister summarized the efforts made and the road ahead. Under the latest military planning law, the force under construction will reach 3,200 people by 2018, double the number in 2012. Given the high level of technical skills required, the minister is also proposing to build a reserve of 4,400 specialists , Of which 400 are capable of offensive action. There, it is a matter of multiplying by ten the effort. Finally, on the side of the DGA, the effort must be multiplied by three to go from 250 to 650 experts. Over 2014-2019, the appropriations devoted to the cyber-war amount to 440 million euros.

Finally, the minister announced the imminent appointment of a new cyber operations commander, a four-star general who will be placed directly under the authority of the chief of staff. In order to carry out military operations, the French army will have its commander-in-chief, which will "have authority over all operational units specializing in cyber defense of the ministry, belonging to all armies, ie 2,600 digital fighters by 2019". Vice-Admiral Arnaud Coustillière, appointed general officer in cyber defense in July 2011, is approached. Decrees and decrees will be promulgated to institutionalize this cyber defense. For the minister, the white collar war is just beginning. In this respect, he often referred to the Stuxnet weapon, the undetectable virus transmitted on Iranian nuclear centrifuges, which delayed Iran's advances in nuclear enrichment by at least two years. 'uranium.

Depuis sa nomination en 2012, le ministre français de défense, Jean-Yves Le Drian s'inquiète des menaces dans le cyberespace. Avec raison. Des soupçons de la CIA sur le rôle joué par des hackeurs russes dans l'élection de Donald Trump aux craintes exprimées par la chancelière allemande, la « cyber-menace » est désormais omniprésente. A l'occasion de l'inauguration ce lundi d'un pôle de compétences sur la cyberdéfense à Rennes ainsi que d'un nouveau bâtiment doté de 7.000 capteurs pour abriter les expériences cyber de la Direction générale de l'armement (DGA) à Bruz (Ille-et-Vilaine), Jean-Yves Le Drian a annoncé en quelque sorte la mise sur pied d'une quatrième armée, ou tout du moins de sa matrice, celle du cyberespace, pour compléter l'armée du siècle passé, construite sur le triptyque terre, air et mer.

La future force cyber s'articulera autour de trois missions : le renseignement (identification des failles, détection des actions hostiles), la protection (édification des murs de la forteresse cyber) et enfin la lutte informatique offensive (neutralisation des outils employés par l'adversaire). Mais Jean-Yves Le Drian va au-delà : « Si une attaque cyber s'apparente à un acte de guerre, notamment par la gravité de ses effets, une riposte adéquate s'impose, au-delà même de la neutralisation des seules infrastructures impliquées, dans une logique cette fois de conflit ouvert. »

En clair, le ministre de la Défense avertit qu'en cas d'attaque, la France se réserve le droit de riposter par une contre-attaque cyber ou conventionnelle. C'est la première fois que la France prévient ainsi officiellement ses adversaires potentiels qu'elle peut qualifier une attaque cyber en acte de guerre et y riposter en conséquence. « Une attaque informatique majeure, eu égard aux dommages qu'elle causerait, pourrait constituer une agression armée au sens de l'article 51 de la Charte des Nations unies et justifier l'invocation de la légitime défense », affirme le ministre. Donc pour répliquer d'une manière « proportionnelle », il faut une cyber-armée.

Une réserve de 4.400 spécialistes
Le ministre a dressé ce lundi un bilan des efforts fournis et du chemin qui reste à parcourir. La force en construction atteindra selon la dernière loi de programmation militaire 3.200 personnes à l'horizon 2018, soit le double des effectifs de 2012. Au vu des compétences techniques de très haut niveau nécessaires, le ministre propose aussi de bâtir une réserve de 4.400 spécialistes, dont 400 aptes à des actions offensives. Là, il s'agit de multiplier par dix l'effort. Enfin, du côté de la DGA, l'effort doit être multiplié par trois pour passer de 250 à 650 experts. Sur 2014-2019, les crédits consacrés à la cyber-guerre atteignent 440 millions d'euros.

Enfin, le ministre a annoncé la nomination imminente d'un nouveau commandant des opérations cyber, un général quatre étoiles qui sera placé directement sous l'autorité du chef d'Etat-major. Pour mener des opérations militaires, l'armée française aura son commandant en chef, lequel « aura autorité sur toutes les unités opérationnelles spécialisées dans la cyberdéfense du ministère, appartenant à toutes les armées, soit 2.600 combattants numériques à l'horizon 2019 ». Le vice-amiral Arnaud Coustillière, nommé officier général à la cyberdéfense en juillet 2011, est pressenti. Des décrets et arrêtés vont être promulgués pour institutionnaliser cette cyberdéfense.

Pour le ministre, la guerre en col blanc ne fait que commencer. Il a, à cet égard, souvent fait allusion ce lundi à l'arme Stuxnet, ce virus indétectable transmis sur les centrifugeuses nucléaires iraniennes qui a permis de retarder d'au moins deux ans les avancées de l'Iran en matière d'enrichissement d'uranium.

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