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Development of regional and cross-border cooperation in Africa

Site created by András István Türke
Last updated: 17/12/2016 em> right>
Version française


> In general, a distinction is made between two main parts:

> 6 subregions
West Africa
East Africa
Central Africa
South-tropical Africa
The Islands on the Indian Ocean
Southern Africa

* the Morocco
* Tunisia
* Libya
* Two Spanish exclaves: CEUTA AND MELILLA;
+ The Nile Valley (> The UN also includes in North Africa):
* SUDAN and RSS (Republic of South Sudan)


II.1. West Africa
II.1.1. - Sahelian Africa:
* Mauritania
* Mali
* Burkina Faso
* Niger
(Chad is often attached to Sahelian Africa.)

II.1.2. - Far West:
* Cape Verde
* Senegal
* Gambia
* Guinea-Bissau
* Guinea (Guinea Conakry)
* Sierra Leone
* Liberia

II.1.3 - The Gulf of Guinea:
* Ivory Coast
* Ghana
* Togo
* Benin
* Nigeria

II.2. - East Africa
II.2.1. The Horn of Africa:
* Eritrea
* Ethiopia
* Djibouti
* Somalia

II.2.2. The African Great Lakes Countries:
* Kenya
* Uganda
* Tanzania
            + (Which are sometimes considered part of the Indian Ocean):
* Seychelles Islands
* Mascareignes Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues)

II.3. Central Africa
* Burundi
* Central African Republic (CAR)
* Chad
* Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Congo-Kinshasa, ex-Zaire)
* Cameroon
* Equatorial Guinea
* Gabon
* Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville)
* Rwanda
(Rwanda and Burundi on the border of two regions, and Francophones, are often attached to the countries of the African Great Lakes)

II.4. South-tropical Africa
* Angola
* Malawi
* Mozambique
* Zambia
* Zimbabwe

II.5. Indian Ocean (islands)
* Comoros
* Madagascar
* Mauritius Island
* the meeting
* Seychelles

II.6. Southern Africa
* Namibia
* Botswana
* South Africa
* Lesotho
* Swaziland


The African continent inherits from the colonial period multiple fragmentations (geographical, cultural, economic and political) and regional patterns which now constitute both stumbling blocks and cornerstones of the process of regional integration in Africa .
In most parts of Africa,
- the French colonies in French West Africa (AOF) and French Equatorial Africa (AEF),
- the British colonies in East Africa
- and the Belgian colonies of Central Africa
Have formed well integrated markets during the colonial period.

AOF, AEF, CU and CUA in 1925 - Source of the image:, modified by András István Türke






French West Africa (AOF, 1895-1958)
French West Africa (AOF) was a federation of eight French colonies in West Africa, with the objective of coordinating French colonial penetration on the African continent under the same authority. Senegal, Guinea, Ivory Cost, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin), Mauritania, French Sudan (future Mali), Senegal Niger, or nearly 25 million people at the time of its dissolution.
His capital was in Senegal, Saint Louis (1895-1902) and then Dakar (1902-1960). The governor general of French West Africa, who was also initially the governor of Senegal resided in Saint-Louis (then in Dakar). In 1901 the Bank of Senegal became the Bank of West Africa. Established as a société anonyme, it has the privilege of issue. Then the bank had left Saint-Louis for Dakar. In 1902, it was the capital itself which was transferred to Dakar. It remained there until the dissolution of the federation. French West Africa was placed under the authority of a governor-general (later called the high commissioner) on whom depended several lieutenant governors. The boundaries of each of the colonies composing French West Africa were negotiated with neighboring colonial powers by conventions. In the case of a Franco-French neighborhood, they were defined by administrative decision. As the French settlement was established, the division of the territory was managed by administrative units, circles and subdivisions.



French Equatorial Africa (FRA, 1910-1958)
A-ÉF was a general government regrouping four French colonies in Central Africa between 1910-1958 within the same federation.
The foundation of the French colony of Gabon - the embryo of the vast domain called to form the future French Equatorial Africa - preceded it as early as 1842.
The territory of the AEF has covered the region of the Sahara Desert to the Congo River and the Atlantic Ocean to the mountains of Darfur. Its surface area was 2,500,000 square kilometers, about four times that of France. It was headed by a governor general in Brazzaville.
Members: Oubangui-Chari (future CAR) -Thad, the Middle Congo (future Congo) and Gabon first as a unified territory, then as an autonomous colony in 1915.
A lieutenant-general was placed at the head of each of the four colonies. Half of the territory of Oubangui-Chari is distributed in concessions. These are listed on the stock exchange and are entrusted to operators who only seek profit. Faced with this hegemony, the missionaries appear as great defenders of the people.
(In 1919, the former German colony of Cameroon was placed under a French protectorate by the League of Nations. It was sometimes assimilated to French Equatorial Africa, but in fact had a special status (autonomous commissariat) which distinguished it from Federation itself.)

Customs Union Agreement (CUA, 1910-1969 -) strong>
The CUA was established in 1910 as the Customs Union Agreement between the Union of South Africa and the High Commission of the Territories of Bechuanaland, Basutoland and Swaziland. It was the first form of SACU (1969-), the oldest official manifestation of integration (thus existing integration) in Africa and the oldest customs union in the world still in operation.






French Community (1958-1995)
The French Community (1946-1958) is the political association between France and the states of its colonial empire, then in the process of decolonization. It was created in 1958 by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic to replace the French Union. (1946-1958). The Community lapsed as early as 1960 because of the independence of all the Member States. However, it was only in 1995 that the constitutional provisions concerning it were formally repealed.
The Community did not function fully until 1959. As early as April 1960, agreements were signed to allow Madagascar's independence "erected in the republican form" on 14 October 1958 and the Federation of Mali Senegal and the Sudanese Republic). Whereas the original version of the Constitution provided that "a Member State of the Community may become independent. He shall thus cease to belong to the Community. ", The Constitutional Law of 4 June 1960 provides that a State may come to be independent and, by" agreements ", remain a member of the Community. The amendment also provides that an already independent State may join the Community but this provision will never be applied.

Commonwealth of Nations (formerly: British Commonwealth) / states in Africa (1949 -)
The British Commonwealth emerged in the mid-twentieth century during the process of decolonization. It is formally constituted by the London Declaration of 1949 which makes the Member States partners "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is the king / queen of the UK who is head of the Commonwealth, who is also head of state of the 16 Commonwealth kingdoms. The other Member States are 31 republics and 5 monarchies (ie 52 states together) whose monarch is different. Member States have no obligation to each other. They are united by the language, history and culture and values ​​outlined in the Commonwealth Charter such as democracy, human rights and the rule of law. The Commonwealth states cover 29,958,050 km2 of territory on the six inhabited continents. Its population is estimated at 2.328 billion.
In Africa the Member States are: South Africa (1931); Ghana (1957); Nigeria (1960); Sierra Leone and Tanzania (1961); Uganda (1962); Kenya (1963); Malawi and Zambia (1964); Botswana and Lesotho (1966); Mauritius and Swaziland (1968); The Seychelles Islands (1976); Namibia (1990);
- 1995: Cameroon (a former French colony !, Mozambique (former Portuguese colony),
- 2009: Rwanda (former Belgian colony)
Zimbabwe was suspended in 2002 on concerns over the electoral and land reform policies of Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF government, before withdrawing from the organization in 2003. The Gambia withdrew unilaterally from the Commonwealth in October 2013. However, the new President (2016) pledged to return the country to the organization. South Sudan is currently (2013) the only country expressing an interest in joining the Commonwealth.

Organization of African Unity (OAU, 1963-2002)
At the continental level, a very strong desire for pan-African unity manifested itself, and was realized in 1963 by the signing of the Charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 32 African countries. The charter was drafted in particular by Malian President Modibo Keita and Togolese President Sylvanus Olympio some time before his assassination.
Among the founding heads of state, opinions differed on its nature. Supporters of federalism, led by Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah, were opposed to the tenantives of an "Africa of States" (ie a confederation) headed by Senegalese President Leopold Sedar Senghor. The latter imposed their vision, and the organization of African unity became a tool for cooperation, not integration, between States.
The OAU has based its strategy on the inalienable right of each State to an independent existence with the slogan "the intangibility of the borders inherited from colonization".
Its guiding principle, respect for sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States, has not enabled it to resolve the increasing conflicts in the continent.
At the economic level, the OAU Heads of State Conference adopted the Lagos Action Plan (PAL) strong> in 1980 with the aim of "promoting economic and social development through Self-reliant development through the integration of regional markets and an import-substitution industrial policy ".
This plan soon showed its limits because of lack of means of implementation and in the difficult context in which most African countries underwent structural adjustment programs under the auspices of the World Bank and the IMF. Consequently, the objectives at sectoral and macro level of the LAP could not be achieved.
In 1984-1985, Morocco withdrew from the Organization of African Unity, of which it had been a member since 1963, following the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. (Western Sahara). The African Union officially took over from the WEE on 9 July 2002.

African Economic Community (AEC, 1994 -)
After the failure of the PAL, the 1991 Abuja Treaty established the African Economic Community (ECA) and gave new impetus to African integration in a context of globalization. The Treaty entered into force in May 1994.


3.0. General presentation
The process of regional integration in Africa has taken a new lease of life with the wave of decolonization initiated by Ghana in 1957, which is becoming the flagship of African cooperation and the liberation of the continent. Between 1960 and 1980, nearly 200 multisectoral economic cooperation organizations and more than 120 intergovernmental and bilateral organizations centered on a single sector were created.
The independence movement of the 1960s resulted in the emergence of independent African states, some of which counter-balanced the integration efforts implemented during the colonial period. The new African leaders envisage regional economic and monetary cooperation as a means of promoting intra-African trade (goods and factors of production, diversification of their economies and optimization of their means of production for less dependence on Of external aid.
Since the beginning of the 1980s, there has been a renewed interest in integration processes in all regions of the world and a multiplication of regional organizations with a predominantly economic and commercial purpose. Contrary to the regional integration process of the 1960s, which was characterized mainly by a withdrawal into existence, embodied by the adoption of import substitution strategies, the current phenomenon is in the context of globalization. It is no longer an antagonistic phenomenon of globalization, but an open regionalism for better integration into the world market.
During this period the multiplication:
➢ Regional Integration Organizations (RIOs)
➢ Regional Economic Communities (RECs) for the most part
 - based on free trade, customs and monetary union agreements and specialized intergovernmental technical cooperation organizations, is characteristic. Em>

Kenya-Uganda Customs Union (1917-1967?) Strong>
Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have cooperated since the early 20th century. The customs union between Kenya and Uganda was set up in 1917, Tanganyika joined in 1927. Td>

United Arab Republic (RAU, 1958-61)
The United Arab Republic was a state created in 1958 by the union of Egypt and Syria and then, for a short time, of Yemen. It disappeared in 1961, but Egypt continued to be called under this official name until 1971. This attempted union is a matter of Nasser's panarabism. Originally conceived as the outline of a large federation encompassing the whole of the Arab world, the republic was created on 1 February 1958. Worried about the communist threat in their country, the Syrian military had turned to Nasser and The Egyptian president seized the opportunity to take a first step towards a pan-Arab union. Faced with the Hashemite axis of Jordan and Iraq that were pro-Americans, the Syrians are in favor of unity between Egypt and their country. Nasser accepts the principle of unity but requires a highly centralized state, a depoliticized Syrian army and that Syria passes under a single party regime in the image of Egypt. A united state between the two countries is created, with Cairo as its capital.
The failure of the UAR is due to three elements:
• Egypt wanted to federate the Arab world around itself, while it did not have the economic and financial means. It wanted to impose its hegemony in the region by way of pan-Arabism. It was therefore incapable of creating among the Arabs a hope of change.
• Nasser imposed an authoritarian bureaucracy and a one-party regime on Syria, the National Union, a party hastily founded for the creation of the UAR. The Baathists explain that a real political party close to the people should have existed to explain all the political changes to the Syrians. The new Egyptian constitution had an authoritarian character that "prevents the real participation of the people".
• Egypt was neither a diplomatic power nor a military power.

Arab Maghreb Union (WBU, 1989-1994 -?)
As part of the struggle against the occupation, a commission for the liberation of the Maghreb was founded in 1927 in Cairo. A conference of the national movements of North Africa was held in 1945. Then, in 1958, the Tangiers meeting was held between the heads of the national movements of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia in order to begin the establishment of joint cooperation.
On June 10, 1988, at the meeting of the Maghreb Five Heads of State in Zeralda (Algeria), it was decided to set up a Main Committee to define ways and means to achieve a Union between the Five States From the Arab Maghreb.
The UMA was founded on 17 February 1989, when the Constitutive Treaty of the Arab Maghreb Union was signed by the Five Heads of State in Marrakesh. It refers to the economic and political organization formed by the five so-called "Arab Maghreb" countries - Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Mauritania - whose headquarters are located in Morocco , Flap.
The total population of the five Member States was 90,344,000 in 2012.
In addition to the signing of the Treaty, the Marrakech Summit adopted a Solemn Declaration on the establishment of the WBU and the Union's Work Program.
Subsequently, six Summits were held, respectively, at:
· Tunis, 21-23 January 1990,
· Algiers on 21-23 July 1990,
· Ras Lanouf (Libya) on 10-11 March 1991,
· Casablanca, Morocco, on 15-16 September 1991,
· Nouakchoutt on 10-11 November 1992.
Tunis, 2-3 April 1994.
During these summits, the Council of the Presidency took several resolutions including:
· The completion of the AMU structures as provided for in the Constitutional Treaty,
· The adoption of Maghrebinverse conventions (36 in number) covering various sectors,
· The adoption of work execution programs initiated by the AMU.
In fact, the UMM has little influence on the policies of its member states. The Council of Heads of State has not met since 1994, and the AMU remains caught up in disputes between each of the countries, including the Western Sahara conflict, despite the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The conflict in Western Sahara represents one of the major obstacles to cooperation between Algeria and Morocco in the direction of progressive integration. At present, the Union is still only at a symbolic stage and this lack of integration is costly to the Maghreb, as regional trade which could develop is slowed down.
The complementarity that seems to exist between the three main countries does not seem to be sufficiently taken into account by the member countries. They are no doubt external to them because, moderately encouraged by the European Union in the framework of the Barcelona process, the political and economic cooperation which would help to solve some of the problems on the southern shore of the Mediterranean has not The slightest beginning of concretization.
The name "Arab Maghreb" is mainly disputed by the Berber militants. In February 2012, the head of the Moroccan diplomacy Saâdeddine El Othmani proposed, at a meeting of the foreign ministers of the UMA in Rabat, the suppression pure and simple of the word "Arab" of the "Union of the Maghreb Arabic ", proposing the name" Union Maghrébine "or" Union of the Great Maghreb "; This proposal received the support of Mauritania but was rejected following the opposition of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia.

Community of Sahelo-Saharan States (CEN-SAD, 1998 -)
The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) is an international organization comprising 28 African States. It was established on 4 February 1998 in Tripoli, Libya, following the summit of the heads of state of Libya, Mali, Niger, Sudan and Chad. The President of Burkina Faso was represented.
On 20 June 2009, Pedro Pires, the Cape Verdean president who visited Libya, announced in Tripoli Cape Verde's decision to join the Community of Sahelo-Saharan States. Cape Verde will become the 29th member country of this organization created on 4 February 1998
At the Summit of 1 and 2 June 2005 in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), the Heads of State decided to create a "High Authority for Water, Agriculture and Seeds" to enable member countries to develop Their agriculture through better control of water resources and seed selection. On the other hand, the summit decided to study the construction of a railway line linking Libya, Chad, Niger, with ramps to Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal, in order to facilitate Exchanges and to open up the Cen-Sad space.
The 10th Summit of Heads of State of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) met on 28 June 2008 in Cotonou on 18 June. Its theme was Rural Development and Food Security in the CEN-SAD area. Benin President Yayi Boni was elected President-in-Office of CEN-SAD for a one-year term.
The objectives of the CEN-SAD are
• the establishment of a global economic union based on a strategy through a complementary development plan with the national development plans of the countries concerned, including investment in the agricultural, industrial, energy, social and cultural fields;
• the elimination of all restrictions which impede the bringing together of these countries by taking the necessary measures to ensure:
• free movement of persons, capital and interests of nationals of Member States;
• freedom of residence, ownership and exercise of economic activity;
• freedom of trade and movement of goods, goods and services originating in the signatory countries;
• the promotion of external trade through an investment policy in the Member States;
• the increase between Member States of the means of transport and communication by land, air and sea through the implementation of joint projects;
• Recognition to nationals of member countries of the same rights, benefits and duties as are accorded to their own citizens in accordance with the provisions of their respective constitutions;
• the harmonization of educational, pedagogical, scientific and cultural systems in the different training cycles.
The main bodies are:
• the Conference of Leaders and Heads of State, which meets once a year in rotating presidency and alternately in the various state capitals;
• the Executive Council, responsible for the preparation of complementary programs and plans and for the execution of the decisions of the Conference of Leaders and Heads of State;
• the General Secretariat responsible for the day-to-day management and monitoring of the operation of the various institutions of the Community;
• the Sahel-Saharan Bank for Investment and Trade (BSIC), established in 1999, which is responsible for the financing of economic development projects;
• the Economic, Social and Cultural Council, an advisory body for the design and development of economic, social and cultural policies, plans and programs of member countries.
Situation with regard to peace and security em>: The region has managed to maintain peace through a process of normalization of relations with countries affected by conflict. However, the crisis in Somalia still affects the Horn of Africa region. The CEN-SAD has succeeded in concluding the following Protocols on peace:
§ Protocol on the Mechanism for the Prevention, Management and Resolution of Conflicts
§ Convention on Cooperation on Security Matters;
§ Charter on Security

The economies of most CEN-SAD countries depend mainly on the Agriculture sector, which accounts for about 30% of the gross domestic product (GDP). But despite its large contribution to GDP, this sector lacks investment. For example, the proportion of the national budget allocated to the Agriculture sector in the CEN-SAD remains below 10% in most Member States, contrary to their commitment at the continental and regional levels. Agriculture in the CEN-SAD countries thus remains generally rain-fed and very dependent on natural resources, with the exception of agriculture in the countries of the northern part of the organization.
The main partner of the CEN-SAD region is the European Union, which accounts for 36% of exports. Less than 10% of the Community's trade is with Africa. Inter-community trade represents just under 6% (2003). These figures give an image of the opportunities offered by the volume of trade for agricultural, livestock and fishery products that should be developed and exploited.
CEN-SAD was also granted observer status at the UN General Assembly. P>


Union of African States (1958-62) strong> (political)
The Ghana-Guinea Union was formed in 1958. On 1 May 1959 it was announced that the Union would be renamed the Union of African States. Then in 1961 Mali joined the Union. The Union was politically socialist and pan-Africanist, and was led by the African revolutionaries Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Sékou Touré of Guinea and Modibo Keïta of Mali. The Union separated in 1962, when Guinea began to move closer to the United States, against the Marxist line of its partners, who were rather oriented towards the United States adversary during the Cold War, the Soviet Union.

Union Sahel-Benin (1958-1959) strong> (political, economic, military)
The Sahel-Benin Union was an ephemeral union of four former French colonies of the French West Africa (AOF), which were the four republics of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso), Niger, Dahomey (Benin) and Ivory Coast. This union was provided with institutions which were certainly modest but functional:
- a Council meeting with the Heads of State,
- the Ministers for Joint Affairs
- and the Presidents of the National Assemblies.
A customs union was established as well as a depreciation fund. Political, economic and military coordination was developed. Nevertheless it lasted a short time and was replaced in May 1959 much more modestly by the Council of the Entente.

Council of the Agreement (1959-) strong> (economic)
The Council of the Entente is the oldest regional cooperation organization in West Africa, mainly for economic reasons, created in May 1959. The founding countries were Dahomey, Upper Volta, Côte d'Ivoire And Niger. Togo joined in 1966. The Council was born of the ephemeral Union Sahel-Benin. Since 1966, the Council has established a permanent administrative secretariat in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. A fund of mutual assistance and guarantee of the borrowings makes it possible to support the most disadvantaged members. The Charter of 5 December 2011 adopted in Cotonou amended and supplemented the constitution.
Objectives: Political, cultural and economic cooperation; 2,034,748 km2; 68,444,400 inhabitants

West African Customs Union (UDOA, 1959-1975?) Strong>
The UDOA formed by the 4 States of the Council of the Entente and Mali in May 1959 is the ancestor of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Federation of Mali (1959-1960) strong> (political)
At the Bamako Conference on 29 and 30 December 1958, the representatives of Senegal (chaired by Léopold Sédar Senghor), French Sudan (> Sudan Republic), Upper Volta and Dahomey undersigned the birth certificate of the Federation of Mali.
(So after decolonization the Mali federation existed earlier than the current Mali (1960-), although the territory of the Malian empire between the 13th and 16th centuries broadly covers the present territory of the country ). Em>
Modibo Keita proclaimed the independence of the French Sudan, which became the Republic of Mali. The dialogue with France was tense. The President announced that Mali was a non-aligned country.
January 23, 1959: The Assembly of the Sudan adopts the constitution of the Sudanese Republic and the federal constitution. In Upper Volta, Maurice Yaméogo changed position: after defending the Federation of Mali, he now wishes an individual accession of his country to the French Community.
This volte-face of the Upper Volta was made on the pressure of the neighboring Ivory Coast. In Dahomey, the partisans of federalism fail and the country has not joined the Federation.
Thus the Upper Volta and the Dahomey withdrew, dissuaded by France and by the Ivory Coast which creates with them the Council of the Entente and only French Senegal and the Sudan adhere to the Federation of Mali. That is to say, France has torpedoed this African initiative because it has considered it as competition.

West African Monetary Union (UMOA, 1962-1994) strong> (AOF> UMOA> UEMOA) (monetary)
The West African Monetary Union was a monetary zone consisting of eight West African countries (AOF): Benin (formerly Dahomey), Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. It was created on 12 May 1962 and its headquarters for the UMOA Commission was in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). According to some historians the UMOA was the economic successor of the OFA (and therefore an instrument of the Francafrica). WAMU was involved in monetary matters. The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) was the monetary institution of WAMU. The UOMO was characterized by the recognition of the same monetary unit, the franc of the African Financial Community (F.CFA), whose issue is entrusted to the BCEAO.
The bodies responsible for the operation of WAMU are:
- The Conference of Heads of State and Government;
- The Council of Ministers ;
- The Banking Commission;
- The Regional Council for Savings and Financial Markets.
The Conference of Heads of State is the supreme authority of the Union. It shall decide on the accession of new members and shall take all decisions on matters referred to it by the Council of Ministers.
The Council of Ministers is responsible for the management of the Union. Each of the member countries is represented by two Ministers, but only the Minister of Finance is entitled to vote. The Council of Ministers shall decide unanimously the decisions in matters falling within its competence by the provisions of the WAEMU Treaty and those of the Statutes of the BCEAO as well as all those which the Governments of the member States agree to submit To its consideration or to submit to its decision. These decisions must respect the international commitments entered into by the Member States of the Union.
The Council of Ministers shall define the Union's monetary and credit policy in order to safeguard the value of the common currency and to finance the activity and economic development of the Member States of the Union. It shall in particular approve clearing and payment agreements between the Common Issuing Institute and foreign issuing institutions designed to facilitate the external regulations of the Member States of the Union.
- On 1 July 1962 Mali decided to leave the West African Monetary Union, creating new tensions between Paris and Bamako. The government introduced the Malian franc which replaced the CFA franc in Mali. The Malian franc was not convertible and the holding of the old currency was forbidden. This decision has aggravated dissension with the traders.
The Malian franc did not manage to keep up against CFA francs. A black market was established by traders selling to neighboring livestock or cereals and buying imported goods for resale in Mali without payment of taxes and customs duties. This black market entails a shortfall in the state budget, which was in deficit from 1960 to 1968.
- The 1980s: the decline in the cost of raw materials has weakened the CFA.