Türke András István - Besenyő János - Wagner Péter (ed.)
MAGYARORSZÁG & CSDP
Magyar szerepvállalás az Európai Unió közös biztonság- és védelempolitikájában
HDF General Staff Scientific Research Center (HVK TKH)
How to order : info(at)europavarietas(dot)org
With the contribution of:
Europa Varietas Institute / CERPESC Research Center - www.pesc.eu
Türke, András István: Hungarian participation in the CSDP: the institutional and legal background
The relations between Hungary and the EU look back on more than four decades of history. There was a long way from the start of the accession talks in 1990 to full-fledged membership in 2004. Hungary was the third newly joined Member State after Slovenia and the Czech Republic in the office of the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union from 1st January 2011.
Created when the Treaty of Lisbon was signed in 2009, the CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) replaces and enlarges the former European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). The aim of the policy is the establishment of a common European defence capability. But there is not even consensus about which tasks or types of operations the EU can undertake. Most Member States have already opted for putting their forces in the national and NATO operations or coalitions of the willing. Legally, the EU’s Petersberg Tasks include operations at a wide spectrum of the violence intensity, including combat operations, yet politically the Member States are still extremely divided over the use of force under the EU flag.
Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, NATO, SEDE, AFET, AWEU
Nagy, Zsolt: The European Union`s military crisis management
The most visible function of the European Union’s defence policy – established in 1999 and renamed as Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) in 2009 ¬ is its civilian and military crisis management activity. In the framework of the CSDP 10 military missions and operations have been launched so far, and their experiences are subject to permanent analyses, especially when it comes to the possible directions of future European defence cooperation. After a short historical overview, the article examines the strategic context of the EU’s crisis management activity and then it deals with the different practical aspects of their execution, and finally draws on some lessons.
The fifteen years long history of the CSDP in the field of military crisis management shows an ambivalent picture. On one hand there are successes in the cases of shorter stabilisation tasks in permissive security environment, but overwhelming reluctance in conflict situations, which would require hard power engagement on the other hand. Partially this is the reason why the EU, in spite of its global aspirations, is unable to provide entirely adequate answers to the security challenges even in its immediate neighbourhood. But one thing cannot be denied: the EU has established and tested its structures and procedures, which made it capable to perform autonomous military tasks. It depends on the reconciliation of the various partial national interests of the Member States and the identification of the common long-term strategic objectives how this capability will be used by the EU, as a whole, in the future.
Keywords: Berlin Plus, ESS, CMCO, CMC, MSO, CONOPS, OPLAN, ATHENA
Tóthi, Gábor: Civilian crisis management of the European Union
Since the early 2000s the European Union has gradually developed its civilian crisis management capabilities within the framework of its common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and common security and defence policy (CSDP), in coordination and complementarity with its economic, diplomatic and development instruments. This political process was highly motivated by the crisis situations at the European neighbourhood, especially in the Western Balkans.
This unique tool also considered as an „EU brand” became a visible and effective contribution to the global peace and security. Under the EU flag the Member States and partners countries deploy more than 2000 civilians, especially police and administrative staff, in 10 civilian missions across three continents. The EU has launched the considerable amount of 26 civilian CSDP missions since the establishment in 2003 of the first police mission in Bosnia Herzegovina.
The present study gives a good overview on the conception of the civilian crisis management activities based mainly on the EU lessons and experiences. The different chapters present the establishment and development of EU civilian capabilities, the specificities and tasks of the different missions deployed and also the outstanding Hungarian contribution.
Keywords: UN, OSCE, soft security, Civilian Headline Goal, CivCom, CPCC,
Horváth, Katalin: Military capability development
In this chapter we outline the process of EU military capability development from the definition of the level of ambition to capability development projects. We examine the role of the Council and the European Defence Agency (EDA) in the process, and briefly look at the research and technology and defence industrial aspects as well. We mention the rapid reaction capabilities of the EU, with an emphasis on the battlegroups. At last, we discuss in a wider context the EU-NATO relationship, which fundamentally determines the possibilities and limits of EU military capability development. We present the political problem originating from the two different approaches to European defence, which has, from the very beginning, hindered the Common Security and Defence Policy from leading us to common defence.
Keywords: EDA, ESS, HG 2010, CDM, EUMS, CDP
Gazdag, Ferenc: Education and training in the CSDP
EU training policy in the Common Security and Defence Policy is aimed at creating a European security culture under the CSDP and meeting crisis management operational needs in both civilian and military fields. The EU training policy in CSDP is implemented by the Member States' training providers on a national basis or through EU-level training providers/projects like ESDC, CEPOL, EDP (etc.).
From 2009 Schoolmaster is the on-line database containing information on all courses delivered throughout the EU that are relevant to the CSDP. Whether delivered by Member States' training institutions or by the EU itself, all courses in Schoolmaster are in principle open to participants from all Member States. The European initiative for the exchange of young officers inspired by Erasmus, the „military Erasmus”, is an initiative undertaken by the European Union Member States aimed at developing the exchanges between armed forces of future military officers as well as their teachers and instructors during their initial education and training. Due to the fact that the initiative is implemented by the Member States on a purely voluntary basis, their autonomy with regard to military training is not compromised.
Keywords: EDP, CEPOL, ESDC, Schoolmaster, Erasmus militaire, EU Training Concept
Less, Ferenc: Civil crisis management operations of the European Union on the West Balkan
After the devastating conflicts on the territory of the former Yugoslavia, the police authorities were compromised, weak or even non-existent in the new countries that emerged from the former constituent republics of the communist state. In the initial period, the international military forces had to take on the tasks of and the substitute the police organizations. Later on, the upcoming problems were tackled by the building of the civilian crisis management system.
In my essay, I examine how the European Union formed its concepts and the necessary capacities regarding the civilian crisis management. I also study how the civilian crisis management missions appeared after the conflicts in the Western Balkans, the types of tasks they were entrusted with, the roles they took on to consolidate the area and what the various difficulties they encountered.
Keywords: EUPM/BiH, IPU, Police Action Plan, EUPOL PROXIMA, CIVPOL, EUFOR ALTHEA, UNMIK, EULEX Kosovo
Vogel, Dávid: Hungarian participation in the EU`s operations in the Balkans
The aim of the study is to give an overview of the Hungarian military participation in EUFOR CONCORDIA in 2003 and in EUFOR ALTHEA since 2004, being integral parts of the European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy, briefly looking back on the past of the military operations and analysing the still ongoing mission’s impact as well as its importance.
Keywords: CSDP, EUFOR, CONCORDIA, ALTHEA, Balkans, Bosnia and Herzegovina, peacekeeping, Hungarian Defence Forces
Remek, Éva: Security Policy aspects of the EU-enlargement
My analysis focuses on the EU's enlargement policy, in particular taking into account security policy considerations. I will briefly review how the European Commission reiterates the commitment to the Western Balkans, included among the priority goals of the EU. It sets out the way forward to bring them closer to the EU and gives priority to support for strengthening the rule of law, good governance, judicial and administrative reform, and the development of civil society.
The 28 Member State Community’s expansion has not stopped, but has slowed down by now. This article discusses which are the EU’s objectives, directions and instruments of the Community’s enlargement policy. It is very important, that the EU continues the process of expansion not because its functionaries remain overwhelmed with the idealism of Jean Monnet (the way of the ancestors), but for pragmatic reasons and security policy aspects. The study of the enlargement policy, taking into account the length, shows the limits of the use of the enlargement strategy, the Western Balkan’s enlargement agenda, tools, and finally sums up the future possibilities of the enlargement policy.
Keywords: SAA, IPA, Balkans, Albania, BiH, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey,
Rácz, András: Crisis Management Operations of the European Union in Eastern Europe
The article studies the crisis management missions of the European Union in the Eastern European region in chronological order. The main conclusion is that CSDP operations in Eastern Europe are not characterized by the same gradual growth in terms of size and intensity that takes place in other EU operations conducted elsewhere. The main reason is that Russia plays an integral role in all crises of the region that are in the focus of the CSDP operations. Hence, a more intensive EU engagement, including peacekeeping, or particularly peacemaking operations would necessarily induce direct confrontation with Russia, for which the necessary political will is yet missing.
Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Eastern Partnership
Türke, András István: The Partnership between EU and Africa
Two grand frameworks govern EU (and former EEC) relations with African countries. The most long-standing one is the one established with the ACP countries, enshrined in the 1975 Lomé Convention and updated in 2000 by the Cotonou Agreement. More recently, a continental approach gained ground with the adoption of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy by 80 African and European Heads of States in 2007. The Africa-EU Partnership, set out in the Strategy, embodies a new forward-looking vision for relations between Europe and Africa as one single continent, and sets out the overarching political framework defining relations between both sides. Going beyond development, it seeks to establish a partnership among equals, determined to tackle issues of common concern together.
Keywords: ACP, Lomé, Cotonou, EURORECAMP, FAA
Marsai, Viktor: The EU military operations in Africa
Since 2003, the EU ¬ in the framework of CSDP ¬ has conducted numerous crisis management missions and operations in the African continent. Nevertheless, the results of the commitments are erratic: while in some countries EU significantly contributed to the stabilization, in other places it could not achieve a breakthrough. The EU lacks a clear strategy and vision in the African peace-building; furthermore, its political will is also limited. And, without these elements, CSDP can only be an ad hoc and temporary tool in the solution of Africa's woe.
Keywords: Artemis, EUTM, Africa, CSDP, crisis-management
Besenyő, János: Hungarian participation in the EU`s operations and missions in Africa
The European Union has regularly accomplished independent missions in the instable regions of the African continent. Hungary took a share in these missions intensively from June 2005 and it contributed considerably to the success of these finished missions. Our soldiers served on the highest respective level among others in the Darfur, Congo, Chadian, Somali and Mali actions as well as in the elimination of the piracy in the area. After all, it is supposed that the European Union will count on our country’s participation in its peace-supporting missions in the future, too.
Keywords: European Union, Africa, Congo, Darfur, Chad, Naval Operation, Somalia, Mali, Libya, Central Africa, Hungary, peacekeeping, piracy, humanitarian activity, military training
Molnár, Anna: The European Union’s Mediterranean Policy
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Mediterranean policy of the European Union. For decades the EU Mediterranean policy has had the goal of promoting cooperation between the EU and the Partner States situated along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Although after the Arab uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa the attention of the EU turned towards the Mediterranean Partner States, and the financial support was increased by the EC, the Mediterranean policy of the EU is still criticised by experts. In 2015, 20 years after the launch of the Barcelona Process, under the pressure of the increasing stream of refugees and a migration crisis in the Mediterranean area, and when fragile and failing states are a serious challenge for EU foreign policy it is obvious that the European stability is not separable from the regional security, political stability and sustainable economic development of the Mediterranean area. The experiences of the last 20 years, and especially the controversial events of the Arab Spring also show us clearly that due to the low level of financial support provided by the EU and the different foreign policy interests of MSs, the EU’s Mediterranean policy focusing on stability aspects rather than democracy aspects has had a low impact on the democratisation and stabilisation processes of the region.
Keywords: Barcelona Process, UfM, Arab Spring, ENP, ENI
Kalmár, Zoltán: The European Union and the Middle East
The Middle East has been shaped by dramatic upheavals in the 21st century. The processes that led to an unprecedented level of instability in the Middle East region both in case of political regimes and states, started with the removal of Saddam Hussein and continued with the so called Arab Spring. The dissolution of Syria and Iraq, which resulted in a giant humanitarian catastrophe, directly threatens European security interests. This article focuses on the evolution of the Middle East vacuum and analyses the potential danger that states between the Mediterranean Sea and the river Tiger could mean to Europe. The study also includes actual and possible European responses to the above mentioned realignments of historic scale, and the EU’s two missions in the occupied Palestinian territory.
Keywords: security policy, conflicts and strategies, fragile states, Middle East, EUPOL COPPS, EU BAM Rafah.
Wagner Péter: The EU Missions to Iraq and Afghanistan
The study presents the EU CSDP’s two most politically-motivated missions, alluding to the fact that when launching the EUJUST LEX-Iraq and the EUPOL Afghanistan operations a priority aspect was given to the interests of and the relations between the US and the EU (and the Member States). As the literature on both topics is quite limited, the study primarily focuses on the political and professional challenges of the establishment of the two missions, and the description of their activities, complementing it with the Hungarian achievements in the Afghanistan mission.
Keywords: EUJUST LEX-Iraq, EUPOL Afghanistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East
Magyarics, Tamás: Marriage counselling? The transatlantic relations in the early 21st century
The (Trans)Atlantic security cooperation concluded during the Cold War was working more or less smoothly both strategically and tactically until the early 1990s, but it faced more and more challenges around the turn of the century and the millennium. NATO has got repeatedly into a crisis of identity in the past two decades. On the one hand, many questioned – and still do – the reason for the existence and utility of the Alliance in the U.S. while, on the other hand, several distinct informal groups organized primarily on geopolitical basis have emerged within the European allies, which see the challenges facing NATO and the role of the Alliance differently. One of the critical aspects of the transatlantic security cooperation is the reconciliation of the various European strategic visions, especially vis-á-vis Russia.
Attempts to create an independent European defence identity have become more pronounced since the end of the Cold War. However, the EU’s military and civilian capabilities are far from the desired level; the latest ideas about the establishment of a European army are an implicit acknowledgement on one level. The transatlantic cooperation may be substantially influenced by the future policies of one of the two European countries with a global strategic vision, the United Kingdom; either its exit from the EU or the growing influence of the SNP is likely to affect the transatlantic security ties.
Each security organization needs an outside force („the other”) to glue the members together; the existential threat posed by the Soviet Union had acted as such for decades. Nowadays, Russia does not threaten NATO-members with direct military attack any more but it employs a host of indirect and/or new types of threats. As the exposure of the European countries differs from country to country, Moscow is weakening the cohesion of the Alliance with selective challenges. In sum, the transatlantic relations are now defined by various strategic visions in the U.S. and Europe, the lack of a commonly shared sense of mission, and the capability gap between the American and European militaries, which are exacerbated by attempts from the outside to divide the Alliance as well as the European members of NATO.
Keywords: NATO, Russia, capability gap, TTIP, TPP, BRICS, SCO, Ukraine
Kiss, Álmos Péter: The European Union counter-terrorism strategy
Terrorism is not an unknown phenomenon in Europe, but for a long time the European attitude was that terrorism – in spite of its international dimensions – is an internal police and justice problem. By the end of the 1960s it became clear that the international dimensions of terrorism were becoming dominant. The European Union launched its anti-terrorist programme in 2001, as a result of the terrorist attacks on the United States. During the 15 years that have passed since then the programme has grown into a vast and hard to follow system of decisions, directives, regulations, strategies, action plans and programmes. The emphasis is on the cooperation of national police, national security and judicial bodies. The primary role of the EU’s organs is to coordinate and make information available. The programme – in spite of some shortcomings and negative features – has so far been effective.
Keywords: Trevi Group, EU INTCENT, CTC, COTER, TWG, EUROPOL, EAW
Szénási, Endre: European Energy Policy
The analysis outlining the European Energy Policy consists of five main parts. The introduction outlines some general context and main requirements of the energy policy. The second chapter summarises the basics of European Energy Policy based on the most significant official documentation. The third chapter outlines the main sectors of European Energy Policy, focusing on the discreditably neglected nuclear energy, the excessively hopeful shale gas extraction, and the European gas wars that have special topicality nowadays in the context of opposition to Russia. The fourth chapter briefly outlines two topics that are viewed as the main constraints of energy production and consumption: problems arising from the climate change and resource depletion. A summary at the end of this analysis attempts to provide a general assessment of the European Energy Policy.
Keywords: LNG, Shale gas, Nord Stream, Nabucco, Gazprom, ITER, EROI
Csiki, Tamás - Tálas, Péter: The European Union's development policy as a tool of CSDP
The evolution of EU development policies dates back to the Treaties of Rome and these have become a broad set of development and aid policies encompassing numerous developing countries across all regions in the world by now. Its discretion is contradictory: some argue that development policies are based on the mutual partnership of donors and recipients in a bottom-up manner, taking into consideration development needs, it is an inherent element of the global roles that European countries play and an important tool of EU enlargement. Some others, however, are highly critical and consider EU development policy only as a consequence of global processes, primarily of the Washington Consensus, that only aims at highlighting the European Union as a global actor. Critics argue that EU development policies do not set these trends, but follow them, they are not unique, and not even successful.
The following chapter gives an overview of how the European Union uses development policies as a tool of its foreign and security policy for enhancing EU structural power. The authors examine the evolution and institutional background of EU development policies, along with the varying centres of gravity that have been articulated in it, the trends in sourcing it, and finally offer a snapshot of the current situation regarding EU development and aid policies.
Keywords: development policy, official development assistance, European Union, aid, structural power
Csiki, Tamás: Perspectives of European defence policy
The fate of European defence policy is inextricably linked to the fate of the European Union itself – with its further evolution and success or the disintegration of European unity and the resulting failure of the Union. As the 2008 financial and economic crises have brought member states’ diverging ideas about the extent of deepening their cooperation within the Union – the degree and way of institutionalizing European integration – to the surface, contrasting the retaining of national sovereignty by member states with sharing sovereignty within the Union, it is hard to offer a reliable long-term forecast for the future of the European Union, and especially for European defence policy. Namely, security policy is one of the most sensitive and most protected elements of national sovereignty, and without sharing the national sovereignty of member states and delegating sovereign powers to Brussels, European foreign, security and defence policies will be neither efficient, nor viable in strategic terms. This depends on the member states’ common interests and will, as we well as on their shared security and threat perception and in the broadest sense, on the evolution of a (more) unified European strategic culture. Based on current strategic trends, some internal dilemmas of the European Union, and an analysis of the patterns of global and regional power the following chapter outlines what may characterize EU defence policy in the future.
Keywords: CSDP, European Defence Union, double spiral of diminishing capabilities; defence